With an obsolete text, 'Yankee Doodle' can hardly be called a national song, but it is still one of the current national airs of the United States. I ts vitality has not been impaired by criticism of its musical merits, and will not be as long as there is room in patriotic folk-music for humorous, indeed, burlesque utterances. As ' Yankee Doodle ' the air seems first to have been printed in the first volumo of James Aird's 'Selection of Scotch, English, Irish and Foreign Airs,' Glasgow (1782), as Frank Kidson pointed out in his ' Old English Country Dances ' (1890). Aird gives this form Slightly different it appeared as ' Yankee Doodle' in Arnold's opera 'Two to One' (1784), and was sung there by John Edwin in tho character of Dicky D itto to tho words 'Adzooks, old Crusty, why so rusty ? ' Again slightly different is tho version in Charles Dibdins ' Musical T o u r ' (1788), to tho words ' I sing Ulysses and those chiefs,' and entitled ' The return of Ulysses to Ithaca.' This burlesque song Dibdin is said to have first introduced in his ' Reasonable Animals ' (1780). The question of tho earliest American appearance in print of 'Yankee Doodle' is still open. In Moore's ' Songs and Ballads of tho American Revolution' (1855), it is claimed th a t ' The Recess ' appeared with this air as a music-sheet in 1779, but no such musical broadside has been found ; and the history of music-printing in America renders it doubtful if the air found its way into print here before forming an ingredient to Benjamin Carr's medley, 'Federal Overture,' composed 1794 and published 1795. The earliest printed American version extant is th a t published by G. Willig, Philadelphia (1798), together with the President's March (' Hail, Columbia ') in the following form, to the words ' Columbians all the present hour '. After this, ' Yankee Doodle ' became frequent in print, but, curiously enough, for decades nearly all versions differed slightly, and they differ also moro or less from two early American MS. versions, the one dated 1790 (in private hands, the other, possibly written as early as 1775, a t the Boston Public Library. The form now used officially is the one given in Sousa's ' National . . . Airs ' (1890), and the smaller notes in the above example illustrate the differences from the Willig version. O. o. S.
(b. Canterbury, 1809; d. Walworth, Aug. 12, 1872), received his musical education there, and from 1831-36 was first principal alto singer a t the cathedral. In 1836 he became deputy and afterwards lay vicar a t Westminster Abbey, and Mar. 3, 1848, first also a t the Temple. This last post he held until his death, with the exception of a year's interval, when he married the widow of a Canterbury alderman and went into business without success. Young was an excellent sole singer, and was successor in public favour to Knyve tt and Machin, being the last male alto soloist of eminence. As such he was frequently heard a t the Ancient and Sacred Harmonic ; Concerts. With the latter Society he sang for a period of ten years ; he first appeared Nov. 14, 1837, in the Dettingen Te Deum and Mozart's ' Twelfth Mass,' etc. He took the parts of Hamor and Joad on tho respective revivals of ' Jephthah ' and ' Athaliah.' He also sang in the revival of Purcell's Jubilate and in various anthems and services. A. c.
an 18th-century English composer, appeared in London a t a concert given by himself in 1704. In Lent 1765, his masque,* The Choice of Apollo,' was performed. Ho wrote a number of songs for Vauxhall and Marylebone Gardens, a collection of moral songs or hymns, 6 easy sonatas for the harpsichord, op. 3, etc. (Q.-L.).
(d. 1672), a skilled performer on the viol and violin ; flourishing in the middle of the 17th century. He is said to have been in the service as domestic musician of the Count of Innsbruck. While there he composed and published a set of twenty-one sonatas for three violins, viola and bass. The title of the work is ' Sonate (21) a 3, 4, 5 voci con allemande, corrante, etc., a 3. Inspruck, folio, dedicated to the Archduke Ferdinand Karl. A copy of this rare work is stated to be in the library of the University of Upsala, and is cited by Walther. Other detached pieces by William Young occur in Playford's ' Musical Banquet,' 1651, ' Musick's Recreation on the Lyra Viol,' 1652, and elsewhere in the Playford publications. Also there are some pieces in manuscript in the Music School collection a t the Bodleian. On Playford's ' Treasury of Musick,' 1669, is advertised ' Mr. Will Young, his Fantazies for viols, of three parts.' This may be either a reprint of, or the original Innsbruck sonatas. I t is probable th a t Young returned to England about 1660, for in th a t year a William Young entered the King's private band as a fiute-player. 1 In 1661 he was, in addition, appointed to the violin. In this early stage of his royal appointments he appears to have roused some ill feeling, for Nicholas Lanier, the master of His Majesty's Musick, was ordered to allow him and other musicians to use the practice chamber from which he had been excluded. He was among the best players of the band, and on some occasions was selected to attend His Majesty, with certain violinists. In 1664 he was allowed, with others of the band, to attend a t the theatre when Mr. Killigrew desired it. On his death Nicholas Staggins obtained his place. He may have been the father of John Y o u n g , the music-publisher, and of Anthony Y o u n g . p. k .
or, T h e M e r r y m a n a n d h i s M a id , opera in 2 acts ; words by W. S. G ilb e r t; music by Sullivan. Produced Savoy Theatre, Oct. 3, 1888. M.
(d. Vittoria, Nov. 1865), a successful composer of Spanish songs, some of which i t is known were in the hands of Bizet when he composed ' Carmen.' A collection of twenty-five of his most popular songs ('25 Chants avec paroles fran^aises ') was issued in Paris shortly after his death (Baker). M.
(b. Settimo-Vittone, Italy, Aug. 6 , 1880), Italian organist and composer. He studied a t the Conservatoires of Milan and Turin; in 1904 ho entered the Academy of St. Cocilia, where he studied organ with Renzi, piano with Sgambati and composition with de Sanctis. For two years ho served as substitute organist a t the Vatican and the Royal Church in Rome. Since 1907 he has been organist and choirmaster of the Church of St. Francis Xavier in New York, and he has won a wide reputation as concert-organist. In 1921 he was made honorary organist of the Basilica of St. Peter, Vatican, Rome. His compositions include a ' Concerto Grcgoriane ' for organ and orches tra; masses ; choral music ; many organ pieces, pianoforte pieces and songs, w. s. s.
(b. Tenerifle, Sept. 18, 1750 ; d. Santa Maria, near Cadiz, Sept. 17, 1791), was secretary of the archives in Madrid. He wrote poems under the anagram Tirso Imareta, and composed symphonies, quartets, songs and a ' monodrama,' ' Guzman el bueno.' His chief work is La Musica, a Spanish poem on music published in 1779. I t is in irregular metre, and is divided into five cantos. The first two deal with elements such as the notes, scales and ornaments, and with musical expression in its various branches. In the third, which treats of church music, the writer distinguishes three principal species- (1) the Gregorian, having no measure of time in its five varieties ; (2) the Mixed or Florid, measured by common or triple time, admitting of various cadences and ornaments ; and (3) 1 D e L a fo n ta ln e , T h e K in g 's M u s ic k . VOL. V the Organic, to some extent a combination of the two former, in which both voices and instruments were employed. Here the writer takes occasion to praise the Spanish composers Patino, Roldan, Garcia, Viana, Guerrero, Victoria, Ruiz, Morales, Duron, Li teres, San Juan and Nebra. The canto closes with a description of the examinations for admission to the Royal Chapel, from which i t appears th a t candidates were required to show proficiency on the organ, violin, flute and hautboy, and to play sonatas a t sight. The fourth canto treats of theatrical music : the shade of Jommelli appears, and after assigning to Spain the palm for pure vocal music, to Germany and Bohemia for instrumental, to France for science, and to I taly for the opera, gives a lengthened description of the orchestra, of recitative, ' greater than declamation, less than song,' which ho limits to the compass of an octave, and of the aria with its various graces, the rondeau, cavatina, duos, trios, quartets, etc. Among dramatic authors the palm is assigned to Gluck, whose rivalry with Sacchini and Piccinni was distracting the musical world. The fifth and last canto, which treats of chamber music, contains a long eulogy of Haydn, who is said to have enjoyed special appreciation in Madrid, where prizes were given for the best interpretations of his compositions. The poem concludes with a wish for the establishment of an academy of music. I t was translated into French, German and Italian ; and an English version by John Belfour, who acknowledges the assistance of Dr. Burney, Dr. Callcott, and S. Wesley, was published in 1807. E. J . P.
(b. Lewes, Sussex ; d. Cornhill, London, Oct. 1G19), the compiler of M u s ic a T r a n s a l p i n a , is probably identical with a Nicholas Young who was a singing-man a t St. Paul's Cathedral in the time of Elizabeth. Burney, misled by a passage in the Dedication to the first book of ' Musica Transalpina,' a collection of 57 madrigals, translated and published in 1588, says th a t he was an Italian merchant, whereas all th a t Yonge says i s : ' Since I first began to kecpe house in this citie, a great number of Gentlemen and Merchants of good accompt (as well of this realme as of forreine nations) have taken in good p a r t such entertainment of pleasure, as my poore abilitie was able to affoord them, both by the exercise of Musicke daily used in my house, and by furnishing them with Bookes of th a t kind yeerely sent me out of I ta ly and other places.' Yonge's mother's maiden name was Bray. During the greater p a rt of his life he lived in the parish of St. Michael, Cornhill: ho had nine children, most of whom survived him and settled in the same parish,where his descendants remained until the 18th century, when some of them are found in th a t of St. James, Clerkenwell. His wife's name was Jane, and he was probably married about 1584. The title-page of the first Book of M u s i c a T r a n s a l p i n a (q.v.) has been already given under th a t heading, th a t of the second Book of 24 songs (1597) runs as follows : Lists of the contents of both volumes are printed (with many mistakes) in Rimbault's Bibliotheca Madrigal tana (1847). Both books (copies of which are in the B.M., R.C.M. and Huth Collections) seem to have been very successful. ' A. B.' printed the words of three of the madrigals in England's Helicon (1600), and Dr. Heather, in his portrait in tho Bodl. Mus. Sch., is represented holding a volume lettered ' Musica Transalpina.' G. W. Budd began a complete reissue of the collection, but issued only six of the 81 pieces (1843). (D.N.B.) The text of the first book w'as issued in Arber's English Garner, vol. iii. Yonge's will (which was proved by his wife on Nov. 12) is dated Oct. 19, 1619, and he was buried a t St. Michael's, Cornhill, on the 23rd of the same month. 1 w . B. s.
(b. Liege, July 16,1858), famous violinist and conductor. Ysaye's early lessons were given him by his father, Nicolas Ysaye, a t the age of five. He then joined the Conservatoire of his native town and studied under Rodolphe Massart (violin) and Michel Dupuis (harmony), gaining a second prize with Ovide Musin in 1867. Two years earlier he had already made his first public appearance a t a small concert given a t Montegnee, near Liege, but it cannol be said th a t his performances as a youth attracted much a tten tion. Then came two pieces of good fortune- the one in 1873 when he had the opportunity of studying under Wieniawski, the other in 1876 when Vieuxtemps, after hearing him play one of his concertos a t Antwerp, and being much impressed by the talent displayed, used his influence to obtain a special subsidy from the Government which enabled him to study for another three years. During th a t period he received many private lessons from Vieuxtemps himself, who held Ysaye a t all times in the highest esteem. This was evidenced in many ways, especially in his later days, when, being in Algiers and seeking to recuperate after serious illness, he expressed the desire (impossible of realisation) th a t Ysaye should be sent for to play some of his compositions to him, and was frequently heard to say th a t he was 4 haunted by the ihanterelle of Ysaye. ' 1 In 1879 Ysaye played a t the concerts given by Pauline Lucca a t Cologne and Aix-la- Chapelle, and made the acquaintance of Ferdinand Hiller, who introduced him to Joachim, before whom he played Vieuxtemps's fourth concerto to Hiller's accompaniment. Joachim listened in silence, but said, just before leaving, ' I never heard the violin played like th a t before.' The remark was ambiguous, but whether tinged with praise or blame, it serves to illustrate what was the salient feature of tho a r t of Ysaye- viz. his originality in technique and in the conception and treatment of music. Hiller took great interest in the young artist, and after obtaining for him an engagement in Oct. 1879, to play Mendelssohn's concerto a t a festival of the Gurzenich concerts a t Cologne, advised him to go to Frankfort, where he enjoyed some fruitful intercourse with Joachim Raff, and played, with Madame Schumann, Beethoven's C minor sonata. In 1880 he was appointed leader of Bilse's orchestra in Berlin, an engagement which lasted a year, in the course of which he gained his first experiences as a conductor, after which (in 1881) he toured in Norway with Ole Bull's son as manager, and (in 1883) played a t a concert of the Paris Conservatoire under Colonne. In 1886 he accepted the post of violin professor a t the Brussels Conservatoire, holding the appointment till 1898. I t was a t this period th a t ho founded the 4 Ysaye Orchestral Concerts * a t Brussels, of which he was not only the conductor but also entrepreneur and manager, achieving success, both artistic and financial, in spite of the absence of either guarantee fund or subscription list. His subsequent tours were very numerous, some in early days, of an adventurous nature. He met with enemies as well as friends-th a t was inevitable with his original style of playing- and the musical world only gradually awakened to an appreciation of his merits. He first succeeded in impressing the Berlin critics, in Mar. 1899, by a striking performance of Bach's concerto in E a t a Philharmonic concert conducted by Nikisch. His free reading of Bach was recognised as containing elements of beauty which a ttra cted even audiences accustomed to the more austere rendering of German artists. The same may be said of his moving interpretation of Beethoven's great concerto in D, which has won him admirers in every musical centre in Europe. He first visited America in 1894 and toured there subsequently with great success, declining an invitation, however, to succeed Seidl as conductor of the New York Philharmonic in 1898. In England his first appearance was in 1889 (in Beethoven's concerto) a t a Philharmonic concert. In the autumn of th a t year he appeared a t the Popular Concerts for the first time, and in 1896 gave three concerts of his own (one orchestral), and another in 1899, etc. In Feb. 1900 he led quartets a t the Popular Concerts (with Inwards, Gibson and Ludwig), and the same year played trios in Queen's Hall (with Busoni and Becker). In 1901 he brought from Brussels his own quartet (Marchot, Van Hout, and J . Jacob) and introduced several modern chamber works to London audiences. Though the virtuoso element in his playing tended to undue prominence of the first violin p a r t in quartets, his readings of the greater works of the chamber music repertory never failed to reveal a musical personality of remarkable interest. Subsequently he gave many series of recitals and sonata concerts a t Queen's Hall with Pugno and others. In Paris, where he had an enthusiastic following, ho found an audience for modern sonatas, mostly written by composers of the French and Belgian school. Cesar Franck's only sonata, which was composed for and dedicated to him, he may be said to have popularised, and he also won acceptance for the sonata written by his compatriot, Guillaume Lekeu. His repertory was therefore very wide in range, though including less of the compositions of the neo-Russian school than th a t of most modern violinists. A late addition to his achievements was his performance of the concerto of Brahms in Oct. 1909, of which he gave a strongly individual interpretation. An appreciation of his stylo would be incomplete without mention of his considerable use of tempo rubato ; and it should bo also mentioned that, though in the main fiery and impulsive, his playing a t its best was kept well under control, as evidenced by his treatment of the vibrato, of which he made constant use, ye t would play occasionally passages entirely without it, producing what he himself has called a ' white tone.' Until 1914, when the war made Ysaye an exile, Brussels remained his headquarters, where he was the centre of a devoted circle of admirers and carried on his work, teaching and conducting (see V i o l i n - p l a y i n g ) . He subsequently went to America and accepted (1918) the conductorship of the Cincinnati Orchestra. He has played successively upon a J . B. Guadagnini violin, a Stradivari of large dimensions and late date, and an exceptionally fine J . Guameri del Gesii, which has been for some years past his solo instrument, the Stradivari being kept in reserve for contingencies. The latter, unfortunately, he no longer possesses, as it was stolen from the artists' room of a concert hall in St. Petersburg in 1908. He is the owner, it may be added, of a fine collection of French violins. He has composed many concertos for violin, which remain in MS., and has published some smaller pieces for violin solo, including 3 mazurkas, op. 11, and a 1 Poeme elegiaque.' Ysaye has received many orders and decorations, including th a t of the Legion d 'honneur. w. w. c. His brother, (2) Th^ophile (b. Verviers, 1865; d. Nice, Mar. 24,1918), studied a t the Conservatoire of Liege, a t Berlin under Kullak, and in Paris with Cesar Franck. He attained considerable skill as a pianist, and made a successful first appearance in London a t a concert of his brother's in the spring of 1896. At later dates he appeared here in sonata programmes with his brother. His compositions include a ' Suite Wallonne,' a concerto for piano, a symphonic poem, a fantasia, etc., and a symphony (No. 1) in F minor, first performed a t Brussels in Nov. 1904, was played in London a t one of the concerts organised in June 1905 for the Ostend Kursaal band. M.