(b. Tolentino, Italy, Mar. 15, 1790 ; d. Pesaro, Aug. 5, 1848), a prolific composer of Italian operas. He passed the first ten or twelve years of his life a t Pesaro, a few more a t Rome with a view to the law, and it was not till his seventeenth or eighteenth year th a t he threw off this, and took lessons of Jannaconi in counterpoint. In 1811 he went to Naples and put himself under Paisiello for dramatic composition, and there wrote a couple of cantatas and some church music. In 1815 he brought out his first opera, ' I solitari di Scozia,' a t Naples. The next seven years were passed a t Venice, each one with its opera. None, however, was sufficiently successful, and he therefore took up the teaching of singing, and practised it in Trieste and in Vienna. In 1824 he resumed opera composition, and in 1825 wrote amongst several others his most favourite work, ' Giulietta e Romeo,' for Naples. In 1829 he visited Paris, and stayed there two years as a singing-master in great popularity. He then passed a short time in London, and in 1831 we again find him writing operas in Italy, amongst others ' Marco Visconti ' and ' Giovanna Grey '-the latter for Malibran, for whose death in 1837 he wrote an elegiac cantata. In 1833 and 1834 he was again in London, singing occasionally a t Lady Morgan's and elsewhere. In 1838 he succeeded Basili as head and principal professor of composition of the Conservatorio of Milan. In 1844 he left his active duties, returned to Pesaro, and wrote a fresh opera, ' Virginia,' for the Argentina Theatre, Rome (1845) : it was his last work. His works contain fifteen operas besides those mentioned above, twelve Ariette per Camera (Cramer, London), and a Method (Ricordi). 1 Giulietta e Romeo ' was performed a t the King's Theatre, Haymarket, London, Apr. 10, 1832, and its final scene, with the beautiful song, ' Ah, se tu dormi,' was often substituted for the last act of Bellini's ' Capuletti ed i Montecchi.' a . ; addn. w. H. G. P. B ib l .- G . V a c c a i ( s o n ) , Vita di N. Vaecai. (1 8 8 2 . )
opera in 4 acts ; words by C. G. Haser, music by Marschner. Produced Leipzig, Mar. 28, 1828 ; in London, Theatre Royal English Opera-House, in 3 acts, Aug. 25, 1829. o.
'Swiftly; with the utmost rapidity.' A term exploited by the ' Romanticists,' generally used of an ad libitum passage in a quick movement, as, for instance, a scale-passage, or similar figure, in a cadenza. I t indicates an increased rate of speed-not, like accelerando, a gradual quickening of the time, but an immediate access of celerity, lasting evenly until the end of the passage or figure to which it is applied. The original time is then resumed without the words a tempo being required. In the large majority of cases the term is only applied to loud passages, as frequently in the works of Chopin, and in the finale of Schumann's Sonata in F ; minor, op. 11 ; but in one instance a t least, the slow movement of his second concerto, the former composer applies it to a soft passage, coupling velocissimo with delicatissimo. In Chopin's ' L a ci darem ' Variations it is applied to an entire variation. Under such conditions i t must be regarded as equivalent to Presto con fuoco. I t is worthy of notice th a t in Czerny's ' Etudes de la velocite ' the direction occurs only once, and then in the superlative, applying, moreover, to an entire study. I t is also found in d em e n t i 's ' Gradus.' m. * L e t t e r o f M a y 19, 1829, to D e v r ie n t . See a lso M e n d e l b b o h s , Vol. I I I . p . 385. s A n o th e r p o r t r a i t , a s well a s a * C a v a t in a a v o c e so la coa p i a n o f o r t e ' o f h is c om p o s itio n , is p r e s e rv e d in th e Autograph Q ra tn ic k In t h e S t a t e L ib r a ry , B e r l in (Q .-L.).
(Ger., literally shoving aside); see U na Corda and M u t e .
(b. Carcassone, Languedoc, c. 1761 ; d. Paris, Mar. 1819), pupil of Charpentier a t Paris, where he settled as teacher and music publisher. He wrote a considerable number of pianoforte sonatas, 1 The title of the orieinal edition (given in the Wiener Zeitung of Feb. 27. 1796) runs as follows : 'XII Variazioni per il Clavicembalo o Piano-Forte Sul Menuetto ballato dalla Siprra. Venturini e Sigr. f'hechi nel Ballo delle Nozze disturbate, del Sigr. Luigi van Beethoven No. 3. In Vienna presso Artaria e Comp.' The Ballet was composed by J. J. H&ibl, and produced at the Court Theatre, May 18, 1795. with and without accompaniment of the violin ; 4 Ouverture e t chasse ' for pianoforte, violin and bass (ad lib.), op. 11. He contributed also to the notorious 4 battle-piece ' literature by 4 La Bataille de Maringo,' which was published in London as 4 The Battle of Marengo, a sonata . . . with additions by the Marquis of Salvo ' ; 2 caprices for PF., op. 3. In Le Gene's 6 concerti he is also represented. His Tutor for the pianoforte appeared in a large number of editions, and attained great popularity. Most of his works were published by himself. e. v . d. s.
Michael Praetorius mentions this instrument amongst the viols he enumerates in his Syntagma musicum, 1614-20. He calls it ' Cant Viol de Gamba (Violetta Piccola),' and mentions four kinds, some with six, some with five, four and three strings. I t answered in tone ' partly to tho tenor and partly to the violin.' A violetta piccola was shown a t the special Exhibition of Musical Instruments, held a t South Kensington Museum in 1872. e . h .-a .
(Ger. Bruststimme); V oce d i T esta, H e a d - voice (Ger. Kopfstimme) ; see S in g in g , subsection R e g is t e r .
(b. 1853 ; d. 1912), the initiating spirit in modem Czech poetry whose writings have inspired a great number of musica works, and who, in turn, has been inspired by music. He was a remarkable linguist and a felicitous translator. The fol owing are a few of the more important compositions which owe to Vrchlicky their literary idea- Dvorak : the opera ' Armida,' based on the poet's translation of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered ; the oratorio * St. Ludmila.' Fibich : the melodramas ' Hakon,' ' Queen Emma,' the trilogy ' Hippodameia *; comedy overture, ' A Night a t Karlstein ' ; incidental music to the poet's * Pietro Aretino.' J . B. Foerster : the opera ' Jessica ' (founded on Vrchlicky's translation of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice) ; melodramas, ' The Three Riders,' ' The Legend of St. Julia.' Karel Bendl : opera, ' Svanda Dudak ' (The Merry Piper). Vlt. N o v a k : opera, ' A Night in Karlstein ; symphonic overture, ' Lady Godiva.' Janatfek : ' Amarus,' solo, orchestra and mixed chorus. Many lyrics and brief choral works. R. n .
(d. ? Leicester, 1791), a composer, mainly of instrumental pieces, settled a t Leicester in the latter half of the 18th century. His works include some songs, an ' Ode on the Birthday of the Marquis of Granby,' a set of ' Thirty Psalm Tunes,' and several books of marches and minuets, among which are, ' Twenty-four Marches, Minuets, and Airs in Seven parts,' ' Eight easy Symphonies for two Violins and two HautboyB,' ' Sixteen Marches and Minuets,' etc. etc. F . K .
a dance very similar in character to the Polka, Mazurka and Redowa. I t is probably of French origin, and seems to have been introduced by a dancing-master named Desire in 1853. Somewhat later it was much danced a t the Tuileries balls, and is said to have been a favourite with the Empress Eugenie. The music is characterised by strong accents on the first notes of the second and fourth bars, corresponding with marked pauses in the dance. The tempo is rather slow. The following is the tune to which the Varsoviana was generally danced : W. B. S.