(b. B re s la u , i S ep t. 20, 1746 ; d. th e re , 1812), s tu d ie d law a t H a lle a n d b e c am e a b a r r i s te r a t B re s la u in 1774, h o ld in g e v e n tu a l ly some h ig h offices a t | th e law c o u r ts . A t H a l le he c o n t in u e d his e a r ly mu s ic a l s tu d ie s u n d e r T u rk . U b e r 's h o u s e a t B re s la u b e c am e th e re n d e z v o u s of d is t in g u is h e d mu s ic ian s , a r t i s t s a n d l i te r a ry m e n , a n d e v e ry W e d n e s d a y a n d S a tu r d a y p u b l ic p e r fo rm a n c e s to o k pla c e th e re , ra n g in g f rom c h am b e r mu s ic j to o p e r a ; some t ime s also a p la y w o u ld be j g iv e n , owin g to th e p re s en c e of some f am o u s I a c to r . U b e r wa s a t a l e n t e d comp o se r , a n d j w ro te a comic o p e ra in 3 a c t s , ' Cla r is se ,' a n o d e I f rom th e h i s to ry of 4 Miss F a n n y W e lk e s ' | (We elkes ?) (1772); a d iv e r t im e n to fo r h a rp s i - j c h o rd , 2 violins, 2 flutes , 2 h o rn s , v io la a n d b a s s (1777); 6 d iv e r t im e n to s fo r h a rp s ic h o rd , flute, violin, 2 h o rn s a n d b a s s (1783); 6 tr io s fo r h a rp s ic h o rd , violin a n d violoncello, a n d a n um b e r of h a rp s ic h o rd s o n a ta s w i th a n d w i th o u t a c c om p a n im e n t of o th e r in s t rum e n t s . (2) C h r i s t i a n F r i e d r i c h H e r m a n n (b. Bre s lau, Ap r . 22, 1781 ; d. D re sd e n , Mar . 2, 1822), son of C h r is t ia n B e n jam in , s tu d ie d law | a t H a lle U n iv e r s i ty , a n d mus ic u n d e r T u r k , fo r j w h om h e d e p u t i s e d a s c o n d u c to r of th e s u b s c r ip t io n co n c e r ts , wh e re h e p la y e d a violin c o n c e r to in D, of his own comp o s i tio n , a n d a lso ? b ro u g h t o u t a c a n t a ta , 4 D a s G r a b , ' b o th b e ing well rec eived. Soon a f te r h e d e v o te d hims e lf e n t i re ly to mus ic, b e c am e c h am b e r m u s ic ian to Pr in c e Louis F e rd in a n d of P ru s s ia , a f te r whoso d e a th in 1806 h e wa s f i r s t v io lin is t a t B ru n s w ic k ; a n d in 1808 h e b e c am e K a p e l lm e i s te r a t j th e Ope ra , Cassels, w h e re h e w ro te s ev e ra l F r e n c h o p e ra s ( ' Les Mar in s '), a n In te rm e z z o | 4 Der falscho Werber,' music to Schiller's 4 Der 1 Taucher,' Klingemann's 4 Moses,' etc. In 1814 he was Kapellmeister a t Mayence theatre (opera, 4 Der frohe Tag ') and in 1816 musical director of Seconda's theatrical troupe a t Dresden. Having long been in delicate health he retired into private fife a t Leipzig, but in 1818 accepted the position of cantor and musical director of the 4 Kreuzkirche,' Dresden. There he wrote, among other works, an Easter cantata and a Passion (' Die letzten Worte des Erlosers '), which proved his swan song, as he was buried on Good Friday 1822, the day of its first performance. (3) A l e x a n d e r (b. Breslau, 1783 ; d. there, 1824), another son of Christian Benjamin, started his musical career as violinist but soon exchanged the violin for the violoncello, which he studied under Jager. He was an intimate friend of C. M. v. Weber, Berner and Klingohr. In 1804 he toured with great success as a violoncellist in South Germany. In 1820 he settled a t Basle, where he married a singer, returning to Breslau in 1821, and becoming Kapellmeister to Prince Schonaich-Carolath in 1823, which post he held till his death. He composed several concertos, variations, etc., for violoncello, I several overtures, vocal music, etc. (Schilling; | Mendel; E. van der Straeten, Hist, of the I Violoncello). E. v. d. s.
(A. Amsterdam, Feb. 1868), operatic tenor. Educated a t Utrecht, he studied jinging a t the Conservatoire, Amsterdam, and first sang in public a t a concert in Utrecht in 1887. After th a t he went through a careful preparation for the operatic stage and made his debut in the same city in 1894 as Canio in ' Pagliacci.' One by one he mastered the leading Wagnerian parts, for which his robust voice and declamatory gifts obviously fitted him, and ere long was engaged for Bayreuth, where he sang for several seasons with invariable success. During the Beecham spring season of 1910 he made his debut a t Covent Garden as Tristan, making a favourable impression, and returned in the following winter to sing Tannhauser. He also appeared a t Covent Garden in 1914 as Parsifal and Siegmund, under Bodanzky; and again in 1924 as Siegmund and Tristan under Bruno Walter. On the Continent he was engaged for considerable periods a t the Paris Opera and a t Leipzig, while from 1912-17 he sang regularly a t the Metropolitan Opera House, New York. He has many decorations, including one from the Queen of Holland. B i b l .- In te rn a tio n a l W ho's Who in M u s ic ; N o r t c i c o t t , Covent Garden a n d the R o y a l O p tra .
(b. Oppeln, Silesia, Nov. 26, 1827 ; d. Mar. 23, 1872), a composer of great ability, whose life was wasted owing to adverse circumstances, and probably also to want of strength of character. His father was schoolmaster a t Oppeln. By 12 he had lost both his parents, and was thrown helpless on the world. He then got into the Gymnasium or Convict a t Breslau ; subsequently went to Glogau, and in 1846 to Berlin. From Mosewius, the excellent director of the University of Breslau, he had an introduction to A. B. Marx ; but Ulrich had no money to pay the fees. With Meyerbeer's help, however, he became a pupil of Dehn for two years, and then produced his op. 1, a PF. trio, followed by two symphonies, all of which excited much attention. The B minor symphony (1852) went the round of Germany, and the ' Symphonie triomphale ' obtained the prize of 1500 francs from the Royal Academy of Brussels in 1853, and was very much performed and applauded. In 1855 he went to Italy and lived for long in the various great towns, but was driven back by want of means to Berlin. Ho brought with him an unfinished opera, ' Bertrand de Born ' (still in MS.). He taught for a short time in the Conservatorium, but teaching was distasteful to him ; he had not the strength to struggle against fate, and after attempting a third symphony (in G) he appears to have broken down, or a t least to have relinquished his old high standard, and to have betaken himself to pot-boilers of various kinds. Amongst these his arrangements of symphonies and other orchestral works are prominent, and of first-rate merit. He left a quartet, two overtures, a violoncello sonata, and various PF. works. G.
( I n c o r p o r a t e d ). The formation of this Union was suggested by Sir John Stainer, who took the chair a t a meeting held a t the R.C.O., Jan. 4, 1893, a t which the Union was formally constituted, Sir John being the first president, and Thomas Lea Southgate the hon. sec. Those only are eligible for membership ' upon wh om Degr e e s in Music h a v e be en conferred b y one o f th e U n iv e r s it ie s o f th e Un i ted Kin gd om of Great Br i ta in an d Ireland, or b y a n y a u th o r i ty in th e sa id Un i ted Kin gd om wh ich confers degrees b y v ir tu e o f a R o y a l Charter or b y th e s a n c t io n o f th e Crown or o f P a r l iam en t . ' The Union was incorporated in 1897, A ' Roll and Kalendar * is issued annually since 1893, and latterly an annual conference of members has been held a t one or other of the Universities. Many distinguished musicians have held the office of president. (See D e g r e e s .)
(b. Verona, 1697 ; d. Berlin, Jan. 20, 1783), of German parents named Hubert, was a pupil of Porpora, and wras usually called Porporino from th a t circumstance. He was an eminent singer in the Italian opera in Germany, and was appointed chamber singer to Frederick the Great a t Berlin. His most distinguished pupil was Mme. M a r a . (Riemann.) M.
an early London violin - maker, who worked in the reign of Charles II. The dates on his violins are chiefly in the 'seventies and 'eighties. The model superficially resembles Gasparo da Salo ; it is high, straight and flat in the middle of the belly, and has a rigid and antique appearance. The corners have but little prominence. The sound-holes are ' set straight,' and terminate boldly in circles, the inner members being so far carried on and introverted th a t the straight cut in each is parallel to the axis of the fiddle. This is Urquhart's distinctive characteristic. The purfling is narrow, coarse and placed very near the edge. The violins are found of two sizes; those of the larger size would be very useful chamber instruments but for the height of the model, which renders them somewhat unmanageable. The varnish, of excellent quality (' equal to th a t on many Italian instruments,' says Hart), is sometimes yellowish brown, sometimes red. Urquhart is considered to have been a Scotsman ; he made flutes as well as violins, and one of his flutes was formerly in the possession of the late John Glen of Edinburgh. Edward Pamphilon, a London violinmakeron London Bridge, about 1680-90, is said to have been his pupil. E. J . P . ; addn. F. K. USANDIZAGA, Jo s
(b. Rehstedt, near Gotha, Jan. 9, 1763 ; d. there, Apr. 28, 1829), a pupil of Kittel, was organist a t Sonneborn in Coburg. He enjoyed a great reputation as organist, organ-composer and teacher. He wrote several books of Chorals, one of these being edited in French by A. Choron (1824), and a number of preludes and fugues for the organ. Three books of easy Choral-preludes were republished by Simrock a t Bonn, and a book of posthumous preludes and fantasias, edited by his son, Dr. Fr. Wm. C. Umbreit, a t Gotha (Lampert), 1833-34. E . v. d. s.
simultaneous occurrence of two sounds of the same pitch. Passages in octaves are sometimes marked Unis., but this is n o t strictlv correct. c. h . h . p .
(b. Milan, 1805 ; d. 1876), | poet, patriot and teacher of declamation. I Together with his friends, Modena and Mazzini, by the power of the pen he succeeded in raising the youth of Italy to action against the tyranny of a foreign domination, and to the establishment of the national independence. His poems are noticed a t length by Cesare Cantii in his History of Italian Literature. He lived a t Milan the greater portion of his life, engaged as a teacher of declamation. He numbered Malibran and Grisi amongst his pupils, and was the last of the masters of declamation who still preserved the old traditions of classical tragic acting. He died by his own hand in 1876, a patriot but a republican to tho end. J . c . G. U .C . , see U n a C o r d a .
also called simply Franc. Sponga, a 15th-16th century Venetian priest and organ virtuoso, pupil of Monteverdi. About 1614 he was organist a t San Salvatore, Venice. When Grills, the organist a t St. Mark's, fell ill in 1621, Usper became his deputy, but when Grills died in 1623 Carlo Fillago was appointed as his successor. In 1627 he was principal of the great school of St. John the Evangelist a t Venice. In a catalogue a t Bologna i t is surmised th a t he was born a t Parenzo. He composed : ' Ricercari et arie francesi,' 4 v. (1595); 1 book madrigals, 5 v. (1604); * Messa e Salmi,' 5 v., with organ and various instruments, together with symphonies and motets, 1-6 v. (1614) ; 1 book motets, symphonies, sonatas, canzons and capriccios, 1-8 parts, with basso continuo ; also 4 La Battaglia,' a 8, to sing and play . . ., op. 3 (1619) ; Vesper-psalms for the whole year, partly for 2 choirs . . ., a 4, 5 and 8 v., with basso continuo, op. 5 (1627) (Q.-L.). UT, the first note of the major scale in the nomenclature of France and Italy : =C. In naming the note C, Ut has been generally supplanted by D o ; but for the key of C, Ut is retained. See H e x a c h o r d ; S o l m i s a t io n .