The title of the first French version of 1 Der F reischutz ' (q.v.).
opera-comique in 3 acts ; te x t by Edm. Gondinet; music by Delibes. Produced Opera-Comique, May 24, 1873; in English, Prince of Wales's Theatre, by the R.C.M., Dec. 13, 1894.
(b. Hamburg, Mar. 22, 1842 ; d. Paris, Apr. 30, 1889), was educated as a violin-player and made such progress as to be sent to the Leipzig Conservatorium, which he entered in 1859. He afterwards studied a t the Paris Conservatoire, and obtained the post of Konzertmeister a t Hamburg in 1863. In 1866 he came to England and appeared as a solo player a t the Crystal Palace on Mar. 10. After a short stay in London he joined Bateman in a concert-tour in the United States, and there met Madame Parepa (see P arepa-Rosa), whom he married a t New York, in Feb. 1867. His wife's success on the stage led to the formation of a company under the management and conductorship of Rose, which, during its early campaigns could boast such names as Parepa, Wachtel, Santley, Ronconi and Formes among its artists. Early in 1871 Rose-who by this time had changed his name to Rosa to avoid mistakes in pronunciation-returned to England with his wife, and then made a lengthened visit to Egypt for health. After this they again returned to London, but Madame Parepa-Rosa died almost immediately, Jan. 21, 1874. Rosa, however, was resolved to tes t the fortunes of English opera in London, and on Sept. 11, 1875, he opened the Princess's Theatre with a company including Miss Rose Hersee as prima donna, Santley and other good singers. Q. Rosa's subsequent career was bound up with the fortunes of the opera company which he directed till his death (see Carl R osa Opera Company). ROSA, Salvator (b. Arenella, near Naples, Ju ly 21, 1615 ; d. Rome, Mar. 15, 1673). His father Vito Antonio de Rosa sent him to be educated a t the college of the padri Somaschi. He soon began to study music, and became an " His collected madrigals a 4 were published In score, Venice. 1577. 7 Fetis mentions a book of Cipriano's masses a 4, 5, 6 (Venice. 1566) on the au th o r ity of Draudius's Bibliotheca classica. This is probably * Liber Missarum ' a 4, 5, 6 (Venice, 1566), to which Cipriano only contributes th e first Mass * Doulce meraoyre.' # Discorsi delli triomphi, etc. nelle nozze dell' illustr. d u ca Gugl. etc. d a Massimo Trojano (Monaco, Berg. 1508). expert player of the lute, improvising accompaniments and interludes to his own verses. His ambition to go to Rome and devote himself seriously to painting seemed on the point of being fulfilled in 1635, when he visited Rome for the first time. But becoming ill, he returned to Naples a t the end of six months, and there became a pupil of the painter, Aniello Falcone, until 1637. Then again he went to Rome, and accompanied a friend, Mercurio, in the service of the Cardinal Brancaccio, to Viterbo, whore he received a commission to paint an altar-piece. After a visit to Naples, he was again in Rome in 1638 until Sept. 1640, when he went to Florence to take an appointment as painter to the court of the Medici, a post he held for nearly nine years. During this time he met Filippo Lippi, poet and painter, and Cesti, the musician, and wrote La strega, to which Cesti composed the music, and II lamento, later on sot to music by Bandini. I t was probably towards the end of 1640 th a t he wrote the satire La musica, a violent a tta ck on the depraved taste shown in Italian church musie. I t was not published till some years after Rosa's death, and evidently caused much agitation. I t was answered with a bitterness almost equal to its own by Mattheson in his Mithridat wider den Gift einer welschen Satyre, genannt la Musica, Hamburg, 1749 ; in which a German translation of the satire is given, with pages of comments and annotations. The six satires, La Musica, La Poesia, La Pittura, La Guerra, La Babilonia and V Invidia, written by Rosa between 1640 and 1669, were probably first published in Rome in 1695 ; the title-page, without date, and with Amsterdam falsely indicated as the printing place, is as follows : Satire de Salvator Rosa dedicate a settano. In Amsterdam presso Severo Prothomastix, 12mo, p. 161. I t was followed by numberless unauthorised editions. The first dated edition of 186 pagos was printed in Amsterdam by J . F. Bernard in 1719, the second edition is dated 1781, and the third 1790. In 1770 there was an edition Con note di A. M. Salvini, printed a t Florence, but with Amsterdam on tho title-page; this was reprinted in 1781, 1784 and 1787. Rosa on leaving Florence was in Volterra for a time, and then returned to Rome in Feb. 1649. The year 1647 was certainly passed peaceably in Tuscany, in spite of the legend which has it th a t Rosa was a t Naples during the insurrection in July 1647, and was one of the ' compagnia della morte ' under the leadership of the painter Falcone. To begin with, no such company existed, and secondly, there are letters preserved, written by Rosa to his friend Maffei, one from Pisa, on Jan. 9, 1647, and another from Florence, on Sept. 26, 1647, in which the tumults a t Naples are not even alluded to (Cesareo, Poesie e leltere, 1892, p. 55). In 1650 Rosa again visited Florence, Pisa and Siena, returning to Rome in December, where he worked a t his painting, finding relaxation in writing songs to which either he or his friend Cavelli, then in Rome, composed the airs. Rosa was buried in the church of Santa Maria degli Angioli alle Torme di Diocleziano. Little of his music is known, with the exception of the songs published in the ' Gemme d ' antichita ' and other modern collections. His position, however, was one of some musical interest. A personal friend of some of the leading composers of the time-Cavalli, Cesti, Bandini and others-he was so far in touch with the new ideas just germinating, as to adopt the method of writing for a single voice with basso continuo accompaniment. In 1770 Dr. Burney acquired from a greatgrand- daughter of Rosa, occupying the same house on the Monte Santa Trinita in Romo in which he had lived and died, a musical manuscript in Rosa's handwriting, containing, besides airs and cantatas by Cesti, Rossi, etc., eight cantatas written and composed by Rosa himself. The airs are melodious and vivacious, and have a good deal of charm. Burney (Hist, of Music, iv. pp. 165-8) gives the music of a certain number of them ; they were also included by N. d' Arienzo in his paper on Rosa in the R .M .I ., 1894, i. 389. The better-known airs are 1 Vado ben spesso,' printed by Dr. Crotch in Specimens of Various Styles, 1808. Edited by H. Bishop in ' Gemme d' antichita,' No. 26, and in La scuola antica, No. 24, also in Marx's Gluck und die Oper, 1863. Beilage, No. 2. ' Star vicino,' edited by W. H. Callcott, ' Gemme,' No. 27. And ' Selve voi che,' edited by J . Pittmann, London, 1878. A manuscript copy of the latter is in tho Vienna Imperial Library, No. 19,242 in Mantuani's catalogue. c. s.
A society founded in London in 1843, by Enoch Hawkins, for the purpose of singing the new compositions of the professional members and others, written in the form of Round, Catch and Canon ; hence the title of the Club. Among the original members were Enoch Hawkins, Hobbs, Bradbury, Handel Gear, Henry Phillips, Addison, D'Almaine and F. W. Collard. The meetings were originally held a t the Crown and Anchor Tavern whence the Club removed to the Freemasons' Tavern, thence to tho Thatched House, again to Freemasons' Tavern, and to St. James's Hall, w'liere, until the demolition of the building, it assembled every fortnight from the first Saturday in November until the end of March, ten meetings being held in each season. I ts meetings were subsequently held in the Criterion Restaurant, and took place on Monday evenings instead of Saturdays. In the earlier years of its existence the number both of professional and non-professional members a t each dinner rarely exceeded eighteen, b u t in the later years of the Club's prosperity from sixty to seventy dined together. The management of the Club was in the hands of the officers, who were the proprietors, and each of whom in turn took the chair, and was alone responsible for the entertainment. The musical programmes latterly consisted mainly of glees, although an occasional catch was introduced. The last session of the Club was th a t which ended in March 1911. o. M., addns.
(b. Prague, Mar. 13, 1855; d. Schloss Alt-Erlaa, Sept. 19, 1903), was a pupil of Proksch, and studied a t the same time a t the Prague Organ School. He taught for a time a t Proksch's Institute till he went, a t the expense of the state, to further his studies in Vienna, where, advised by Brahms, he learnt counterpoint with Nottebohm, and with Navratil when Nottebohm died. His connexion with Gustav Walter, whose permanent accompanist he was, had a groat influence over his development as a composer of songs. His compositions are of various sorts, including songs, ' Balladen,' settings to five Minnelieder of Walter con der Vogelweide, gipsy songs, duets, choral songs with PF. accompaniment and also a cappella, besides a violin sonata (op. 7), a PF. quintet (op. 13), some piano solos and duets, and an opera, ' Dio Rosenthalerin,' which was produced a t Dresden in 1897, and attracted a considerable amount of attention. h. v. ii.
(b. Copenhagen, Denmark, Oct. 26, 1855), Danish-American teacher and composer. He studied with Gade, Hartmann, Reinecke and David, and later with von Bulow and Rubinstein. As a concert pianist he toured throughout Europe. In 1904 he succeeded MacDowell as head of the music department of Columbia University (New Y o rk ) ; he retired from th a t position in 1919. His compositions include a symphonic p oem; an overture and other orchestral pieces ; a violin concerto ; a threeact ballet, ' Prince Ador ' (Karlsruho, 1903); and many pieces in the smaller forms. w . s . s . t
of Florence, where he contributed songs to the wedding festivities of the Duke in 1539. He composed a book of canzone, words by Petrarca, published by Jacque Modeme1 ; also songs in various collective volumes (E. Vogel; Q.-L.).
(b. Hexham, Mar. 17, 1822 ; d. Newark, July 21 or 22, 1905), was noted for his fine voice and careful singing as a chorister a t Durham Cathedral. After leaving the choir he had organ lessons from Stimpson of Birmingham, and then became successively i Information from Dr. W. H. Cummings. LXIY MUSICAL INSTR UMENTS - ENGLAND (c. 1175) (University Libr., Glasgow) Above: Chimebells. Centre: Harp. Below: Rebec, Panpipes, Recorder and Viol. Medallions: Psaltery, Handbells and Organistrum. organist a t St. Andrew's, Newcastle (1845) ; St. Peter's, Tiverton (1847); St. John's Parish Church, Hampstead (1854); St. Saviour's, Warwick Road (1856) ; St. Stephen's, Paddington ; Radley College (1859, succeeding Dr. E. G. Monk); Bury, Lancashire (1861) ; and in 1864 was appointed ' Song-schoolmaster and organist ' of the parish church, Newark, retiring from tho latter post in 1901, but retaining th a t of Song-schoolmaster on the Magnus foundation until his death. In 1879 he distinguished himself by producing a t the Bow and Bromley Institute, London, two comic cantatas of J . S. Bach (' Caffee-C'antate ' and ' Bauern-Cantate '), which were performed there -certainly for the first time in England-on Oct. 27, under his direction, to English words of his own adaptation. Reay published a Morning and Evening Service in F, several anthems and two madrigals (all Novello); but was best known as a writer of partsongs, some of which (' The clouds th a t wrap,' ' The dawn of day,' written for the Tiverton Vocal Society) were deservedly popular. o.
surname of a family of Flemish musicians who flourished towards the end of the 16th century. There were five brothers, one of whom, A o g u s t i n (not August, as given by Eitner, which would correspond to Augustus in Latin but not to Augustinus), was a canon of the Church of St. Peter, Lille (not Douai, as Eitner suggests in Q.-L., forgetting the words of the dedication partly quoted by himself in his Bibliographie, p. 216).' In 1590 Regnart edited and published a t Douai a Collection of thirty-nine Motets, a 4-6, composed by his four brothers F r a n c i s , J a c o b , P a s c h a s i u s and C h a r l e s R e g n a r t . The work appropriately bears on its title-page the motto, 'Ecce quam bonum et quam jucundum fratres habitare in unum,' Psal._132. The full title i s : o Novae Cantiones Sacrae, 4, 6 e t 6 vocum turn instrnmentorum cnlvis generi turn vivae voci aptissimae, authoribus Francisco, Jacobo, Pascasio, Carolo R egna rt, fratribus germanis.' 2 Of the four brothers only two attained any real position or eminence as composers, Francis and Jacob. The other two are only represented by three motets apiece in this Collection, and of their careers nothing is known with any certainty. Of F r a n c i s , Augustin tells us th a t he had pursued his studies a t the University of Douai and the Cathedral of Tournai. Besides the twenty-four motets in the Collection above mentioned, Francis Regnart is chiefly known by a book of fifty chansons a 4-5, 'Po6sies de Ronsard et autres,' originally published at Douai by Jean Bogaerd in 1575, and afterwards a t Paris by Le Roy and Ballard in 1579. These chansons have now been republished in modem score by H. Expert in his collection 'Les Maltres musiciens de la renaissance fran- Caise.' I-Y'tis mentions a book of Missae tres a 4-5, by Francis Regnart, published by Plantin in 1582, but there is no trace of such a publication in Goovaert's Bibliographie, and Eitner knows nothing of it. Of the life and works of J a c o b (d. Prague, 1600) we have fuller information. He was early received as an Alumnus of the Imperial Chapel a t Vienna and Prague. In 1564 he is designated as tenor singer in the chapel, and as a member of the chapel accompanied the Emperor to the Augsburg Diet of 1566. In 1573 he is mentioned as musical preceptor to l See also Goovaert's Bibliographie, p . 2 6 8 ; b u t he contradict* himself by elsewhere (p. 52) describing Augustin Reg n a rt as Canon of St. P eter's, Louvain. * Another incidental mistake of E itn e r Is th a t of taking th e word * germanis ' as indicative of nationality, and explaining i t on the ground th a t Flanders was th en p a r t of Germany, while all th a t the word really implies is that tho brothers were full brothers. VOL. IV the boys of the choir, and before 1579 became the vice-Kapellmeister. In 1580 he was offered by the Elector of Saxony the post of Kapellmeister a t Dresden vacant by the death of Scandelli, but declined. In 1582, however, he left the imperial service to enter th a t of the Archduke Ferdinand a t Innsbruck, where he remained as Kapellmeister till 1595. He then returned to Prague, where he died. Shortly before his death, in the dedication of a book of masses to the Emperor, Rudolf II., which, however, was not published till afterwards, he recommended to the care of the Emperor his wife and six children. The widow, a daughter of Hans Vischer, the famous bass singer in the Electoral Chapel a t Munich under Orlando Lassus, returned to Munich, where she occupied herself in preparing for publication in 1602-03 three volumes of her husband's masses, containing altogether 29 a 5, 6 , 8 and 10, also a book of ' Sacrae cantiones,' a 4-12, 35 Nos. The other sacred works of Regnart which appeared during his lifetime were a book of 'Sacrae cantiones,' a 5-6, 1575, and one a 4, 1577 ; also one entitled Mariale, 1588, Marian motets composed by way of thanksgiving for recovery from severe illness. He was, however, even more widely known by his secular works, which consist of ( 1) two books of 'Canzone italiane,' a 5 (1574-81), (2) two books entitled 'Threni Amorum,' German secular songs, a 5 (1595), and (3) several collections, a 3, 4, 5, entitled ' Kurtzweilige teutsche Lieder nach Art der Neapolitanen oder welschen Villanellen' (1576-91). Of the latter, the collection of 67 a 3 was republished by Eitner in modern score in 1895. They are written in the simple melodious Italian canzonet style, without any artificiality of counterpoint. In some introductory lines of verse the composer apologises for his frequent intentional employment of consecutive fifths in the harmony as being in accordance with the simple popular character he wished to give these songs. The melody of one of them, 4 Venus du und dein Kind,' has become, with a slight alteration in the first line, the Choral tune well-known later, 'Auf meinen lieben Gott.' Two of Regnart's other songs, a 5, which have something more of imitative counterpoint, have been reprinted in Commer's selection of 'Geistliche und weltliche Lieder aus der xvi-xvii Jahrh.' None of his Latin motets have been reprinted, with the exception of one which found admission into the Evangelical Gotha Cantional of 1655, whence it has been reproduced in Schoberlein's Schatz. His masses, several of them based on the themes of German popular songs, must have been popular in their day, judging from the MS. copies of them enumerated in E itner as surviving in various church archives. A Passion according to St. Matthew, a 8 , by Regnart survives only in MS., of which some 2 A account is given in Kade, Die cillere Passions- Icompositicnen, pp. 60-02. J . R . M. R e p r i n t s .-H. E x p e r t , M a', Iren Musiciens de la Renaissance franqaise, No. 15 (Paris); Ext rails aes maUres musiciens de la Renaissance franqaise (Paris); La Fleur des musiciens de P . de Ronsard, contained in La Fleur des poesies de P . de Ronsard, genlilhomme vendornois (Paris, Lite des Livres, 1923). B i b l .- A l f r e d W a s h e r m a n s , Die welllichen Werke Jakob Regnarts. Vienna Dissertation, 1919.
(b. Suhl, Thuringer- Wald, 1749 or 1750 ; d. there, Feb. 26, 1810), was appointed organist a t Suhl in 1773 and remained till his death. He was distinguished as a performer, and, devoting himself to the study of the works of Sebastian Bach, he worthily upheld the more solid traditions of the Bach school of organ-playing against the prevailing shallowness of his time. Breitkopf & Hartel still retain in their catalogue some of his works originally published by them, such as his six fugued Choral-preludes, six organ trios and various Choral-preludes in trioform. Various fughettas for the organ also appear in Volkmar's ' Orgel-Album.' J . R . M .