maestro di cappella a t St. Peter's, Rome, in 1548, and master of the boys of the cappella Giulia. He retired in 1550. He composed motets and other church music, all in MS.; 2 books of madrigals, 5 v. (1562-63); 1 book madrigals, 4 v. (1565); chansons nouvelles, 4-6 v. (Paris, 1577) ; also chansons and madrigals in collective volumes (Q.-L.). ROSSETER, P h i l i p (b. circa 1 5 7 5 , d. London, May 5, 1 623) , lutenist and song-writer. In 1601 was published : * A Booke of Ayres, set foorth to be song to th e Lute, Orpherian and Base Violl, by Philip Rosseter L u te n i s t : And a re to be solde a t nis house in Fleestreete neere to th e Grayhound. A t Lonond [sic] T>rinted by P eter 8hort, by th e assent of Thomas Morley.' (Eng. Sch. of Lutenist Song-writers.) This book differs from all the other song-books of the English lutenists in th a t i t really consists of two separate books of twenty-one songs each ; the first by Campian and the second by Rosseter. There is only one title-page, and the dedication to Sir Thomas Monson and the Address to the Reader are Rosseter's. In the first section the words as well as the music are admittedly by Campian ; there is no positive evidence th a t Campian also wrote the words of Rosseter's songs, but it is commonly assumed th a t he did so. All the songs in the volume were written as solo-songs without an alternative version for four voices. All Rosseter's songs are simple in construction, but they are very melodious and admirably vocal. In the Address to the Reader Rosseter says some interesting things about song, and he was evidently one of those who did not approve of the complexity of contrapuntal writing. In 1609 he published a set of * Lessons for th e C o n so rt: made b y sundrie excellent Authors an d set to sixe severall instruments.* Rosseter's association with Kingham, Reeve and Robert Jones for training ' the Children of the Revels to the Queen ' is described in the article on Robert J ones, q.v. Campian seems to have been the life-long friend of Rosseter ; dying in 1620, he bequeathed him all his property, amounting to about
an association founded in 1864 on the initiative of R. D. Limpus, with a view (1) to provide a central organisation in London of the profession of o rganis t; (2) to provide a system of examinations and certificates for the better definition and protection of the profession, and to secure competent organists for the service of the Church; (3) to provide opportunities for intercourse amongst members of tho profession and the discussion of professional to p ic s ; (4) to encourage the composition and study of sacred music. A council was chosen, and the College was opened a t Queen Square, Bloomsbury, and afterwards was located successively a t 95 Great Russell Street, Ha r t Street, Bloomsbury, and Kensington Gore, when, after the opening of the new building of the R.C.M., the old building of th a t school passed into the tenure of the R.C.O. The College is incorporated under the Companies' Acts ; i t consists of a President, Vice-Presidents, Musical Examiners, Hon. Treasurer, Hon. Secretary, Hon. Librarian, Hon. Auditors (two), Fellows, Associates, Hon. Members and Ordinary Members. The Archbishops of Canterbury and York and the Bishop of London are Patrons of the College, and the names of some notable musicians appear among the office-bearers from the beginning up to the present time. A council of not less than 30 Fellows, with the Hon. Secretary and Hon. Treasurer, hold the reins of government, retiring annually ; two-thirds of tho number are re-elected with other Follows who have not sorved during the preceding year. At the general meeting every Ju ly the retiring council present their report on the state of the College. Arrangements are made for the half-yearly holding of examinations in organ - playing, general knowledge of the organ, harmony, counterpoint, composition, sight-reading and general musical knowledge, after passing which a candidate is entitled to a diploma admitting him to a fellowship in the College. This examination is only open to candidates who have previously been examined for and obtained the certificate of associateship, and to musical graduates of the English Universities. To Dr. E. H. T urpin (q.v.), for many years Hon. Secretary, was due the proposal to establish a Pension Fund for organists incapacitated by age or illness. Other features of the College work are the Organists' Register, and the prizes for composition. The College was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1893. The Calendar of the Royal College of Organists, issued annually, contains a short history of the College with full information as to its current activities and particularly the regulations for its examinations. L. M. M., rev.
(b. Sheemess, Dec. 24, 1812 ; d. London, Dec. 8, 1900), went to Bologna in 1825 to study music, was for a time a pupil of Rossini in Naples, appeared as a singer a t the Surrey Theatre in 1828, and went to Canada about 1833. He was organist of the Presbyterian church, Rochester, N.Y., and travelled in America till 1841, when he returned to England and gave entertainments by himself and in company with Charles Mackay. The first took place a t the Hanover Square Rooms, Mar. 8, 1842. In his particular style he had no rival. His songs ' I 'm afloat,' ' A life on the ocean wave ' (which in 1889 was authorised as the march of the Royal Marines), ' Cheer, boys, cheer ' (the only air played by the regimental drum and fife band when a regiment goes abroad), ' Woodman, spare th a t tree,' etc., are still familiar, and some of his dramatic songs, as ' The Dream of the Reveller,' ' The Maniac,' ' The Gambler's Wife,' etc., were immensely popular in their day. I t may certainly be said th a t over 800 songs were either written or composed by him. At a time when Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand were almost unknown, Henry Russell was instrumental, through the Canadian government, in sending over thousands of poor people who are now wealthy. A memoir was published in 1846, and a book of reminiscences, Cheer, Boys, Cheer, in 1895. He retired from public life in 1865, and was ffeted a t a special concert given in his honour by Sir A. Harris in Covent Garden Theatre, Oct. 12, 1891. L' amico dei cantanti is a treatise on the a r t of singing. Two of his sons have attained distinction in music. (2) H e n r y , a singing-master and operatic impresario, and (3) L a n d o n R o n a l d (q.v.). J. H. D.; addns. D.N.B. (suppl.), Mus. T. Jan. 1901, etc.
(b. Liege, 1702; d. Antwerp, Nov. 30, 1764), a vicar-choral of Notre Dame (Cathedral), after filling organist posts there as well as a t Louvain and Ghent. He composed 12 suites and 3 sonatas for harpsi- o The dates of composition of later symphonies are as follows: 2nd and 3rd 1869 : 4th, 1871; 5th, 1872 ; 6th , 1876 ; 7th, 1877 ; 8th , 1878 ; 9th, 1880. chord, 6 ' petites suites ' for harpsichord, flute or violin, and a number of harpsichord pieces. E. v. d. s. RAIF, O s k a r (b. Zwolle, Holland, July 31, 1847 ; d. Berlin, Ju ly 29, 1899), was a pupil of Tausig, and occupied a post as pianoforte teacher in the Royal Hochschule a t Berlin, with the title of Koniglicher Professor, from 1875 till his death. H. v. H.
(b. Rome, 1747 ; d. Bath, Apr. 8, 1810), made his debut a t Rome in 1765, captivating his audience by his fine voice, clever acting and prepossessing appearance. In 1766 or 1767 he was a t Munich, where Burney heard him in 1772, and where four of his operas were performed. He sang a t various places during this period. In London he made his first appearance in 1774, in Corri's ' Alessandro nell' Indie.' His appearance in a pasticcio of ' Armida ' in the same year has resulted in the attribution to him of an opera of th a t name dated 1778.3 He distinguished himself as an excellent teacher of singing, Miss Storace, Braham, Miss Poole (afterwards Mrs. Dickons) and Incledon being among his pupils. In 1778 and 1779 he gave subscription concerts with the violinist Lamotte, when they were assisted by such eminent artists as Miss Harrop, Signor Rovedino, Fischer, Cervetto, Stamitz, Decamp and Clementi. He also gave brilliant concerts in the new Assembly Rooms (built 1771) a t Bath, where he took up his abode on leaving London. Here he invited Haydn and Dr. Burney to I'isit him in 1794. On this occasion Haydn wrote a four-part canon (or more strictly a round) to an epitaph on a favourite dog buried in Rauzzini's garden (see H a y d n ). Rauzzini's operas performed in London were ' Piramo e Tisbe ' (Mar. 16, 1775, and afterwards in Vienna), ' Le ali d ' Amore ' 3 The error was copied into many dictionaries from th e first edition of th is work. (Feb. 27, 1776); ' Creusa in Delfo ' (1783) ; 1 La regina di Golconda ' (1784); and ' La Vestale ' (1787). ' L' eroe cinese,' originally given a t Munich in 1771, was performed in London in 1782.1 He composed string quartets, sonatas for PF., Italian arias and duets, and English songs ; also a Requiem produced a t the little Haymarket Theatre in 1801, by Dr. Arnold and Salomon. A miniature by J . Hutchinson (monochrome) is in the Victoria Museum a t Bath. His brother, (2) Ma t t e o (b. Rome, 1754 ; d. 1791) made his first appearance a t Munich in 1772, followed his brother to England, and settled in Dublin, where he produced an opera, ' II re pastore,' in 1784. He had written ' Le finte gemelli ' for Munich in 1772 and 'L' opera nuova ' for Venice in 1781. He employed himself in teaching singing. c. f . p ., with addns.
(b. 1757 ; d. June 22, 1815), after quitting school, was placed with a law stationer in Chancery Lane, where his fellow-wri ter was Joseph Munden, afterwards the celebrated comedian. Determined, however, upon making music his profession, he became a pupil of Richardson, organist of St. James's, Westminster. In 1781 he was appointed organist of Totnes, Devonshire, where he remained till about 1783, when he was engaged as composer a t Astley's. He was next for some time an actor a t the regular theatres. In 1791, being then a chorus singer a t Covent Garden, he was applied to, to complete the composition of the music for the ballet pantomime of ' Oscar and Malvina,' left unfinished by Shield, who, upon some differences with the manager, had resigned his appointment. Reeve thereupon produced an overture and some vocal music, which were much admired, and led to his being appointed composer to the theatre. In 1792 he was elected organist of St. Martin, Ludgate. In 1802 he became p a r t proprietor of Sadler's Wells Theatre. His principal dramatic compositions were : * Oscar and Malvina ' and 4 Tippoo Saib,' 1791; * Orpheus and Eurydice,' p a r tly ad apted from Gluck, 1792; 'The Appa rition,' ' British F o rtitu d e ,' ' Hercules and Omphale ' and * The Purse,' 1794 ; * Merry Sherwood ' (containing Reeve's best-known song, ' I am a F riar of orders grey '), 1795 ; ' Ha rlequin and Oberon,' 1796; ' B an try B ay ,' 'The Round T ow e r ' an d 'H a r leq u in Quixote,' 1797 ; ' Jo an of Arc ' and ' Ramah Droog ' (with Mazzinghi), 1798; * The Turnpike Gate ' (with Mazzinghi), ' The Embarkation ' and ' Thomas and Susan,' 1799 ; ' Paul and Virginia ' (with Mazzinghi) and ' Jamie and Anna,' 1800 ; ' Harlequin's Almanack ' and ' The Blind Girl ' (with Mazzinghi), 1801 ; * The Cabinet ' (with Braham, Davy and Moorehead) and ' Family Quarrels ' (with Braham and Moorehead), 1802 ; ' The Caravan,' 1803 ; ' The Dash ' and ' T hirty Thousand ' (with Davy and Braham), 1804 ; ' Out of Place ' (with Braham) and ' The Corsair,' 1805; ' The White Plume,' * Rokeby C a s tle ' and ' An Brata ch,' 1806 ; ' Kais ' (with Braham), 1808 ; ' Tricks upon Travellers ' (part), 1810 ; and ' The Outside Passenger ' (with Whitaker and D. Corri), 1811. He wrote music for some pantomimes a t Sadler's Wells ; amongst them ' Bang up,' by C. Dibdin, jun., containing the favourite Clown's song, ' Tippitywitchet,' for Grimaldi. He was also author of The Juvenile Preceptor, or Entertaining Instructor, etc. w. H. h .
opera-comique in 3 acts ; words by Lockroy and Battes, music by Victor Mass6. Produced Theatre-Lyrique, Dec. 27, 1856. In English, Her Majesty's Theatre, Dec. 24, 1860. G.
(b. Warsaw, Dec. 23, 1855; d. Poland, May 25, 1917), was tau g h t singing by his brother Jean, Ciaffei, Steller and Coletti, and made his debut Apr. 22, 1876, as the King in 'Aida,' on its production a t the Italiens, Paris. He sang there with success for two seasons, and afterwards went to Italy, where, in 1880, a t Turin, he made a success in two new parts-the King in Catalani's ' E lda,' Jan . 31, and Charles V. in Marchetti's ' Don Giovanni d ' Austria,' Mar. 11, and appeared a t Milan on the production of Ponchielli's ' Figliuol prodigo,' Dec. 26. From 1880-84 he was engaged in London with the Royal Italian Opera until its collapse. He made his debut onApr. 13, 1880, as Indra (' Roi de Lahore '), b u t his success as a foremost lyric a r tis t was established 1 De' pr in cip ii dell' armoiUa musicale, P ad u a , 1767, p . 86. by his admirable performances of St. Bris, the Count in * Sonnambula ' and other important parts. He appeared as Hagen, on production of Reyer's * Sigurd,' Ju ly 15, 1884, etc. In 1883- 1884 he reappeared in Paris a t the Italian Opera (Theatre des Nations), with great success, in * Simone Boccanegra ' ; in Massenet's ' Herodiade,' on its production in P a r i s ; in Dubois's ' Aben Hamet,' Dec. 16, 1884, and in other operas. He was engaged a t the Opera, where he first appeared Apr. 13, 1885, as Mephistopheles, a p a r t he sang subsequently in the 500th performance of ' F aust.' He appeared as Leporello in the centenary performance of ' Don Ju a n ,' Nov. 4, 1887. He played a t the Italian Opera a t Drury Lane in 1887 the pa r t of Ramfis in ' Aida,' and sang during the season as Basilio, St. Bris, Mephistopheles and Henry the Fowler (' Lohengrin '). From 1888 to 1900 he sang every season (except 1899), and added to his repertory the parts of Alma viva, Marcel, the Mefistofele of Boito, and, most important of all, the Wagnerian parts of Hans Sachs, King Mark, Kurwenal, Hunding and Hagen. From 1890, for many seasons, he sang in America with his brother, with the greatest success. He sang a t the Mozart (concert) Festival a t the Nouveau Theatre in Paris in the spring of 1906, under the direction of Reynaldo Hahn. In Feb. 1907 he advertised his intention of opening a school of singing in London, and appeared there on June 13. His brother, (2) J ean (more correctly J an Meczislaw) (b. Warsaw, Jan . 14, 18501 ; d. Nice, Apr. 3, 1925), the eldest son of the controller of the government railways, was taught singing by his mother, a distinguished amateur, and a t the age of 12 sang solos in the cathedral there. He was taught later by Ciaffei, Cotogni and Sbriglia. Under the name 4 De Reschi ' he made his debut a t Venice as a baritone in ' Favorita ' in Jan. 1874, according to an eye-witness, with success.2 He made his debut a t Drury Lane on Apr. 11 of the same year, and in the same part, and played there two seasons as Don Giovanni, Almaviva, De Nevers and Valentine. A contemporary 3 spoke of him as one of whom the highest expectations might be entertained, having a voice of delicious quality ; he phrased artistically and possessed sensibility, but lacked experience such as would enable him to turn his vocal gifts to greater account and to becomean effective actor. I t is interesting to find th a t the quality of the organ was even then considered to be more of the robust tenor timbre than a baritone. Under his own name he made his debut a t the Italiens as Fra Melitone ('Forza del destino'), Oct. 31,1876, with some success, and as Severo (Donizetti's ' Poliuto '), Doc. 5 ; Figaro (' Barbiere '), Dec. 19. 1 See Truth. J u ly 15. 1897. 2 Le tte r of Michael Williams in Musical World, J a n . 31, 1874. & Athenaum, Apr. 18, and Ju ly 25, 1874. He made his tenor debut as ' Robert ' a t Madrid in 1879 with great success, and was engaged a t the Theatre des Nations in 1884. He played there the p a r t of St. John the Baptist on the production of 'Herodiade' so much to the satisfaction of Massenet, th a t he procured him an engagement a t the Opera to create the titlepa rt of ' Le Cid,' in which he made his debut on its production, Nov. 30, 1885. He was engaged there for four years, and sang the usual tenor parts, notably Don Ottavio (' Don Juan ' centenary) and Romeo (in 1888, on the production of Gounod's opera a t the Opera). On June 13, 1887, he reappeared a t Drury Lane as ltadames, and sang as Lohengrin, Faust and Raoul. He worthily fulfilled his early promise by the marked improvement both in his singing and acting, and by his ease and gentlemanly bearing,the improvements being almost entirely due to his own hard work and exertions. On June 4, 1888, as Vasco de Gama, he made his firstappearance a t Covent Garden, and from th a t season dates the revival of opera as a fashionable amusement in London. Till 1900, inclusive, he sang nearly every year in England, his parts including John of Leyden, the Duke in ' Un ballo,' Don Jose, Phoebus in Goring Thomas's ' Esmeralda,' Lancelot in Bemberg's 1 Elaine,' Worther (in Massenet's opera). In the great parts of Wagner, such as Walther, Tristan and Siegfried, he was unrivalled, throwing new light upon the music by his wonderful power of interpreting the dramatic side, without losing sight of vocal purity. He sang for several seasons in America with his brother, and a t Warsaw and St. Petersburg. On Dec. 11,1890, he assisted gratuitously in the performance of ' Carmen ' a t the Opera-Comique in Paris, where Mme. Galli - Marie reappeared in her original part, and Melba and Lassalle were in the cast. He reappeared a t intervals a t the Paris Opera, singing in ' Siegfried ' and ' Pagliacci ' on the Paris production of those operas. He was announced in Reyer's ' Sigurd ' in 1904, but was unable to appear through illness. He spent the latter p a r t of his life in Paris, and from 1919 a t his villa a t Nice,4 and devoted himself to teaching. Their sister, (3) J osephine (d. Warsaw, Feb. 22, 1891), educated a t the Conservatorium of St. Petersburg, a ttra cted the notice of Halanzier a t Venice, and was engaged by him a t the Opera, where she made her debut as Ophelia, June 21, 1875. She sang there with success for some time, where she was the original Sita (' Roi de Lahore '), Apr. 27, 1877. Later she was very successful a t Madrid, Lisbon, etc. ; sang a t Covent Garden as Alda, Apr. 18, 1881, and again in Paris a t the Theatre des Nations as Salome (' Herodiade '), Mar. 13, 1884. She retired from public life * F or an appreciation of J e a n de Reszke as a tea cher see M. and L . vol. vi. No. 3. on her marriage with Leopold de K ronenburg of Warsaw. a . c. B ib l.-H. d e Cttezon, Nouvelle Revue, J u ly 15, 1921, J ean de Retzke; Lyrica, Mar. 1925, Les Gloires du chant : Jean de Reszke; Music and Letters, vol. vi. No. 3, Essays by several English writers.
(b . Carmarthen, Nov. 13, 1817 ; d. London, May 1, 1885), son of Henry Richards, organist of St. Pe ter 's, Carmarthen, was intended for the medical 8 F ^ tis 's dates are questionable. * See Beethoven for th" variations on * Une fWvre brQlante.* Another s e t a ttr ib u ted to Mozart is now considered spurious. profession, but became a pupil of the E.A.M., where he obtained the King's scholarship in 1835, and again in 1837. He soon gained a high position in London as a pianist. As a composer he was financially very successful, his song ' God bless the Prince of Wales ' (published in 1862) having reached a high pitch of popularity, even out of England, and his sacred songs, partsongs and pianoforte pieces having been most favourably received. An overture in F minor was performed in 1840. He composed additional songs for the English version of Auber's ' Crown Diamonds,' when produced a t Drury Lane in 1846. He especially devoted himself to the study of Welsh music (upon which he lectured), and many of his compositions were inspired by his enthusiastic love for his native land. He exerted himself greatly in promoting the interests of the South Wales Choral Union on its visits to London in 1872 and 1873, when they successfully competed a t the National Music Meetings a t the Crystal Palace. (Addns. D.N.B.) w. h . h .
(b. Elgersburg, Saxe-Gotha, Feb. 18, 1770 ; d. Darmstadt, Aug. 7, 1846), celebrated organist and composer for his instrument. His talent developed itself a t an early period, and, like Johann S c h n e id e r , he had tho advantage of a direct traditional reading of the works of Sebastian Bach, having studied a t Erfurt (in 1786-89) under Kittel, one of the groat composer's best pupils. Rinck, having sat a t the feet of Forkel a t the University of Gottingen, obtained in 1790 tho organistship of Giessen, where he held several other musical appointments. In 1805 he became organist a t Darmstadt, and 1 professor ' a t its college ; in 1813 was appointed court organist, and in 1817 chamber musician to the Grand Duke (Ludwig I.). Rinck made several artistic tours in Germany, his playing always eliciting much admiration. At Trevos, in 1827, he was greeted with special honour. He received various decorations-in 1831 membership of the Dutch Society for Encouragement of Music ; in 1838 the cross of the first class from his Grand Duke ; in 1840 ' Doctor of Philosophy and Arts ' from the University of Giessen. Out of his 125 works a few are for chamber, including sonatas for PF., violin, and violoncello, and PF. duets. But his reputation is based on his organ music, or rather on his ' Practical Organ School,' a standard work. Rinck's compositions for his instrument show no trace of such sublime influence as might have been looked for from a pupil, in the second generation, of Bach ; throughout them fugue-writing is conspicuous by its absence, but his organ-pieces contain much th a t is interesting to an organ student. Amongst his works the more important are the ' Practical Organ School,' in six divisions (op. 55, re-edited by Otto Dienel, 1881), and numerous ' Preludes for Chorales,' issued a t various periods. He also composed for tho church a Pater Noster for four voices with organ (op. 59) ; motets, ' Praise the Lord ' (op. 88) and ' God be merciful ' (op. 109); twelve Chorals for men's voices, etc. His valuable library was purchased in 1852 by Lowell Mason of Boston, Mass., and since given to Yale. h . s . o .