(1) abbreviation of piano = soft, generally in the form of the small letter italicised. (2) Abbreviation for Pedale, indicating the use of the damper pedal in pianoforte music, generally in the form of the capital letter italicised. PABST, (1) A u g u s t (b. Elberfeld, May 30, 1811 ; d. Riga, Ju ly 21, 1885), was cantor and organist a t Konigsberg and afterwards director of a music school a t Riga. He composed several operas produced a t Konigsberg and Dresden. His two sons were esteemed musicians, viz. : (2) Louis (b. Konigsberg, Ju ly 18, 1846) appeared in 1862 as a pianist with the Konigsberg Philharmonic and toured in Germany. In 1867 he came to England and was a t Liverpool for two years, whence he went to Riga, where he founded a music school. He also visited Australia and established a school a t Melbourne (1887), and afterwards he went to Russia and held a professorship a t Moscow (1903). He composed piano-music, songs and melodramas. (3) P a u l (b. Konigsberg, May 27, 1854; d. Moscow, June 9, 1897), a pupil of Liszt, settled a t Moscow as a teacher in the Conservatoire. A prolific composer, he is remembered chiefly for his brilliant ' paraphrases ' for the pianoforte of operatic music, especially th a t on Tchaikovsky's 1 Eugene Oniegen.' (Riemann.)
(b. 1525/26 ; d. Rome, Feb. 2, 1594), takes the name by which he is generally known from the place of his birth, the small cathedral town of Palestrina in the Roman Campagna, one of the seven suffragan episcopal sees of the Diocese of Rome. In Latin dedications and letters the composer usually signed his name Joannes Petraloysius (or Petrus Aloysius) Praenestinus, Praeneste being the ancient classical name of the modern Palestrina. Many of his early secular compositions appeared in collections under the diminutive pet name of Giannetto. Formerly there was the greatest uncertainty as to the year of his birth, various dates being given, ranging from 1514-29. Haberl first discovered an inscription which pointed to 1526 approximately as year of birth, and late writers2 have produced evidence which points to 1525. The old tradition th a t Palestrina was of very humble origin is now refuted by the discovery th a t his parents, Sante Pierluigi and Maria Gismondi,3 occupied a fairly good social position in Palestrina as owners of houses and lands. The other tradition of his early association with the great Church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome is so far confirmed by the appearance of the name 'Joannes de Pelestrina' in the church archives as one of six choir boys in 1537 under the care of a chaplain and choirmaster. I t further appears th a t a certain Firmin Le Bel was appointed choirmaster in 1540, which induces Casimiri to surmise th a t Firmin Le Bel is the real Gaudio Mel of later Roman tradition, Palestrina's master in the a r t of musical composition.4 But though Le Bel may have instilled into the youthful chorister some of the elements of musical science, it may seriously bo doubted whether Palestrina continued under his tuition afterwards for instruction in composition. Another solution of the mystery surrounding the name of Gaudio Mel is possible. Firmin Le Bel hardly corresponds to the description of Palestrina's teacher given by Antimo Liberati, who, writing in the year 1685, is the only source for the name Gaudio * See K. Weinmann, Palestrinas Ooburtstag, 1915. Casimiri believed th a t he had succeeded in establishing the precise d a te as May 9, 1525, and published the discovery in his periodical. Not* d' Archivin, b u t frankly admitted in a subsequent n umber th a t he had been deceived. See Note d' Archivio, J u n e 1924. 3 From A. Cametti's Palestrina (1925) i t appears th a t Maria Gismondi was s tepmother to th e composer; S ante's first wife, Palma, dying in 1536. 4 Casimiri, N uovi documents, etc., p. 17. Mel. This teacher is described as being a Flemish musician of great talent and master of a very graceful and polished style, who opened a school of music in Rome from which proceeded many excellent musicians, and chief among them Palestrina. This description points to Arcadelt more th an to any one else, and Arcadelt was a prominent member of the Sistine Chapel Choir from 1540-49. We may account for the substitution of the name Gaudio Mel by the fact th a t Goudimel, though never in Rome, was afterwards the editor of a volume of compositions by Arcadelt, and may thus have been confused with him by Liberati, and the transformation of the name Goudimel into Gaudio Mel is easier to be explained than th a t of Firmin Le Bel. We might therefore hazard the conjecture th a t when, as an old record says, Palestrina returned to Rome in 1540 for the study of music, it was to place himself under the tuition of a real master of musical composition like Arcadelt between th a t date and 1544. However this may be, there can be little doubt of the fact th a t the Fleming Arcadelt and the Spaniard Morales, who was also in the Sistine Chapel Choir to 1545, were Palestrina's first models in the development of his own particular style, Arcadelt standing to him in somewhat of the same relation as Perugino to Raphael, and Morales as Signorelli, or some other of th a t school. On October 28, 1544, the Cathedral Chapter of his native town engaged Palestrina as organist and choirmaster, assigning him the revenues of a canonry. His duties were to play the organ on festivals, to sing daily in the choir a t Mass, Vespers and Compline, and to instruct the canons as well as the boys in singing and the musical a r t generally. In 1547 he married Lucretia de Goris, who brought him some considerable accession of worldly means. What music Palestrina may have written a t this time we have no means of knowing. Before the middle of the 16th century composers had hardly begun to publish works on their own account. Morales was one of the first to do so by his books of masses published a t Rome in 1544. But musical works usually circulated in manuscript for some time before the music-printers obtained copies for publication with or without the sanction of the composers. A work which there seems good reason for taking to be one of Palestrina's earliest works is a Mass a 5, which only appeared in print as late as 1592 in a collection of ' Missae dominicales ' published a t Milan under the editorship of a Carmelite friar Giulio Pellini, who seems to have been an early acquaintance of the composer. This Mass is partly based on themes from the plain-song Mass ' Orbis Factor,' and in the Gloria and Credo there is the peculiarity of the alternation of Palestrina's music with passages sung in simple plain-song, an early style of Mass composition. On Feb. 7, 1550, the Bishop of Palestrina, Cardinal Gian Maria del Monte, was elected Pope, and assumed the name of Julius I I I . in memory of his former patron Julius I I . At his instance Palestrina was recalled to Rome in September 1551 to become choirmaster of the Cappella Giulia, the choir in connexion with St. Peter's founded by Julius I I . to be a , nursery of native singers for the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, where foreign singers had hitherto predominated. In token of gratitude for his appointment Palestrina in 1544 published his ' First Book of Masses ' with a dedication to the Pope, in which with flattering allusions to the Pope's encouragement of music, he also refers to the care he himself had bestowed on the composition of these masses ( ' exquisitioribus rhythmis ') to make them worthy of the occasion. This book contains 4 masses a 4 and one a 5. The first Mass in it is a further flattering tribute to the Pope, not only by its title, ' Ecce sacerdos magnus,' but by the use which the composer makes of the whole tex t as well as of the musical theme of the plain-song Antiphon, which begins with these words. Thus while in the greater p a r t of the Mass one or other voice sings in long sustained notes of plain-song the words, ' Ecce sacerdos magnus qui in diebus suis placuit Deo e t inventus est justus,' the other voices sing the ordinary words of the Mass in free, quicker counterpoint. Another feature of this Mass is the use of the devices of proportional notation in the Hosanna and Agnus. The other masses a 4 in this book are ' O regem coeli,' ' Virtute magna,' these two based on themes taken from motets beginning with these words by Andreas de Silva, a former composer to the Papal Chapel, and ' Gabriel Archangelus,' similarly based on a motet by Verdelot. This seems to show the interest Palestrina took in the works of his Flemish predecessors. The Mass o 5 is entitled ' Ad coenam agni providi,' and is based on a later Roman form of plain-song tune to the Easter Hymn beginning with these words. The tune in this form is not in accordance with older manuscripts of plain-song, and has therefore been rejected from the revised Vatican edition of the Antiphonal, b u t it suited Palestrina's purpose for polyphonic setting. I t is given complete, note by note, in the soprano p a r t of the Christe Eleison and the Benedictus. In the rest of the Mass two of the voices sing in canon diapente or subdiapente. I t is interesting to note in the first Agnus of this Mass the first appearance of the phrase in the soprano with which the Missa Papae Marcelli begins the Kyrie, and there are other general resemblances of musical phrase between the two masses. VOL. IV O On Jan. 13, 1555, by express command of the Pope, Palestrina was admitted a member of the college of singers of the Papal Chapel. This appointment seems to have given umbrage to the other singers of the chapel, as being a contravention of a recent regulation issued by Julius himself, limiting the future number of singers to 24 and requiring th a t no one should be admitted without examination and approval . by the whole college. But in this very regulation there was a clause reserving the right of the Pope to appoint by a Motu Proprio signed with his own hand. To accept this appointment Palestrina was obliged to resign his office as choirmaster of the Cappella Giulia, in which he was succeeded by the Florentine Animuccia. Meantime he was busy with the preparation for publication of his First Book of Madrigals a 4, which he intended to dedicate once more to his Papal patron. This intention was frustrated by the unexpected death of Pope Julius on Mar. 23, 1555. The book was published later in the year without any dedication, but on the title-page the composer was still able to designate himself as a singer of the Papal Chapel. There were 22 numbers, in later editions increased to 23. In these early madrigals we may notice a certain subordination of the technique of imitation to th a t of simple harmony in note for note counterpoint. A large number of them begin with these bursts of four-part harmony with only slight points of imitation afterwards. In this respect Palestrina follows the lines of madrigal composition laid down by Verdelot and Arcadelt. I t is interesting to note in No. 11, towards the end on the words ' 1' anima vi consacro,' exactly the same succession of chords as give so unearthly an impression to the opening of the famous Stabat Mater. Mention may also be made of one number with verses written by Palestrina himself in praise of Francesco Rosselli, one of his predecessors, as choirmaster of the Cappella Giulia from 1548-50. Baini observes th a t what he has been able to see of Rosselli's compositions does not merit the high eulogium which Palestrina gives to them, but it is remarkable th a t of two settings of the words ' Adoramus te,' 1 by Rosselli, one has been persistently attributed to Palestrina's authorship, and seems good enough to warrant this a tt r i bution. On Apr. 9, 1555, Cardinal Marcello Cervini was elected Pope and took the title of Marcellus I I He was a devout and exemplary prelate, who announced his intention of reforming various practical abuses in church worship and discipline, and was also interested in the question of a proper church music. His death, however, only 3 weeks after his accession prevented the carrying out of any plans he may have formed. The Missa Papae Marcelli is Palestrina's great i See Proake, M iu . div. tom. iv . p p . 307*10. tribute to his memory, and it is ju s t possible th a t Palestrina may have begun the composition of this work during his reign and a t his instigation, although it was not published or known by this name till 12 years afterwards. Marcellus was succeeded in the Papal Chair by Cardinal Pietro Caraffa, who took the title of Paul IV. In the passionate zeal of the new Pope for what he conceived to be a necessary disciplinary reform in the Papal establishment he issued a Motu Proprio on Ju ly 30, 1555, dismissing from the service of the Sistine Chapel the three members who happened to be married men, including Palestrina, assigning them a small pension as compensation. The two others were Leonard Barre, who had served in the chapel with great distinction for 18 years, and Domenico Ferrabosco, usually considered to be the father of Alfonso Ferrabosco, who afterwards settled in England, and gave the original impetus to the cultivation of madrigal music here. The humiliation of this dismissal seems to have affected Palestrina's health for a time, and he may have felt it as a great blow, not so much perhaps from the merely financial point of view, as from its possible injury to his reputation and the loss of the distinguished patronage he may have hoped to secure in the Papal Court and its entourage for the further publication of his works. St. J ohn Lateean.-From Oct. 1, 1555, he became choirmaster of the church of St. John Lateran. Although this church proudly proclaims itself the ' Mother and Head of all the churches of the city and the world,' and is the proper Cathedral church of the Bishop of Rome, it has, ever since the removal of the Papal residence to the Vatican in 1377, taken a very secondary place to the great church of St. Peter. I ts choir service was not so well endowed, and it does not appear th a t the dignitaries connected with it gave Palestrina the least encouragement to publish his works. During the reign of Pope Paul IV., 1555-59, Palestrina published nothing on his own a ccoun t; b u t contributions from him were sought by the editors and publishers of madrigal collections, in which his authorship was for some time concealed under the name of Giannetto. To a collection of madrigals a 4 by Cyprian da Rore, first published in 1557, there is appended ' una canzon di Gianetto ' which, however, consists of 14 stanzas, paraphrasing a t undue length a single sonnet of Petrarch. The whole work is in consequence somewhat heavy and monotonous, both in melody and harmony. In one of three contributed to a collection of 1558, a setting a 4 of all the stanzas of Petrarch's canzona ' Chiare fresch' e dolci acque ' we find on the words ' alle dolenti mie parole ' another example of the same sequence of chords as in the opening of the Stabat Mater. In the Secondo Libro delle Muse a 5, published a t Venice in 1559, under the fuller name, Giannetto da Palestrina, there is a very expressive number ' Ogni loco mi porge dolor e '1 pianto,' in which much more use is made throughout of imitation and less of mere blocks of chords as in earlier works of the kind. In the Terzo Libro delle Muse of 1561 there are 8 madrigals by Palestrina which have a greater variety of interest and expression. Among them is ' Io son ferito,' which seems to have become a favourite number, with its themes used afterwards by other composers for masses and organ ricercari. Meantime, among works for the church written in those years, but not published during his lifetime, or indeed, till long afterwards, we may mention a beautiful book of the ' Lamentations ' a 4 to 8, mostly for low voices, now published by F. X. Haberl as Book 2 in the complete edition of works Bd. 25. The ' Lamentations ' are the Lessons for the First N ot turns of the last 3 days of Holy Week, two or vhree verses only of each Lesson being composed, but with the refrain a t the end ' Jerusalem convertere,' etc. Another work probably of this time is a book of Magnificats o 4-6, composed on the eight tones, the alternate verses only being composed, some of them very elaborately, with various canonic devices after the old Flemish manner. This is numbered as Book 3 in the volume of Magnificats in the complete edition Bd. 27. But the work of this time by which Palestrina leapt a t once into sudden fame, and began to be hailed as the first church composer of the day, is the very simple but touching setting for 2 responsive choirs of the Improperia or Reproaches in the service for Good Friday. This work secured for him the favour of the new Pope, Pius IV., who requested a copy for the use of the Sistine Chapel, where afterwards it always formed a striking feature of the Good Friday service, creating a deep impression. I t was the first work of the composer copied into the great MS. choir-books of the ohapel. In 1558 Palestrina somewhat suddenly resigned his post a t St. John Lateran, apparently being dissatisfied with certain conditions which the Chapter sought to impose on him. Evidently the Chapter did not appreciate their choirmaster a t his true worth. On March 1, 1561, he was appointed choirmaster to the better-endowed church of Santa Maria Maggiore, otherwise known as the Basilica Liberiana. Encouraged by the request of his Improperia for the Papal Chapel, also perhaps anxious to retain and deserve his pension in connexion with it, he presented to the college of singers two motets and a Mass. The motets were Beatus Laurentius a 5, composed after the old manner with the plain-song antiphon as cantus firmus on long notes in the quintus part, with the other voices in free imitative counterpoint on the same theme ; ' Estote fortes in bello ' a 6, composed differently, with free use of the plain-song antiphon as a canon between two of the voices. The Mass is th a t which is known as the Hexachord Mass a 6, based on the syllables ' Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la,' and is one of the finest works of the master, in which the whole beauty of his later style is definitely manifested. Ingenuity and beauty are wonderfully blended in it. The second soprano sings nothing else throughout but the scale of six notes on varying time values, sometimes ascending, sometimes descending. The Gloria and Credo are almost entirely in note for note counterpoint, making the words to stand out with peculiar distinctness. Ambros comments on the seraphic beauty of the Crucifixus and Pleni sung by the 4 high voices. In the Sanctus advantage is taken of the opportunity which the word Sanctus affords for flowing ornamental scale passages. The Hosanna and Benedictus show other features in the trea tment of the scale appropriate to the words which the music is intended to illustrate. The Second Agnus is a 7 with a close canon in subdiapente a t one bar's distance between two of the voices on the ascending and descending scale. The whole work might thus be thought as a commentary in music on the ladder set between heaven and earth with angels ascending and descending. These works were copied into the great choirbooks of the Sistine Chapel, and contributed to extend the composer's growing reputation. The success thus attained may have induced Palestrina in 1563 to publish his First Book of Motets a 4 dedicated to the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, Ridolfo Pio Carpi. I ts proper title is ' Motecta festorum totius anni cum communi Sanctorum quaternis vocibus.' I t contains 36 numbers on texts taken from the Gradual and Antiphonal for all the chief feasts of the Church Year in order beginning with Christmas. In his dedication the composer declares the function of music in church to be the seasoning of devotion by the added delight of sweetness of song and variety of harmony, and expresses his own desire to commend religion to the ears of men by the utmost beauty of musical a rt. And, indeed, all or nearly all of the pieces of this book are gems of the first water. T h b C o u n c i l o p T r e n t .- Meanwhile, in 1562 the Council of Trent had been reassembled, and the question of church music came up for consideration, specially in connexion with the service of the Mass. Much exaggerated language has been used with regard to the state of church music before this time. One chief ground of complaint against elaborate contrapuntal musio in the Mass was th a t the words could not be properly heard and understood. There was a considerable p a rty of bishops in the Council who desired to banish polyphonic music altogether from the service of the Church, retaining only the unison plain-song; but others, especially the Spanish bishops, were eager in defence of polyphony, urging in its favour the Scriptural tex t ' non impedias musicam ' (Ecclus. xxxii. 5, Vulg.). I t was a t the same time forgotten th a t the complaint was quite as much directed against the florid plain-song of Introits, Graduals and Offertories, and its bad execution as against the florid counterpoint on single words of the older polyphonic music; while ever since the time of Josquin composers themselves had been reforming their style of composition by simplifying their counterpoint to give greater prominence to the words, and the increased attention to expression in the motet and madrigal had encouraged this tendency. Another ground of complaint was the use of secular tunes for the designation and in the composition of masses, whereby it came about, as was alleged, th a t singers often indulged in the irreverent practice of singing the original unedifying words of the tunes along with the sacred words of the Mass. I t may be doubted whether this latter practice was a t all common, but, strange to say, it was not altogether unknown in the Papal Chapel.1 The reason for the choice of these tunes as themes for Mass composition was no doubt their more melodious character, and the opportunity they afforded for greater freedom and variety of treatment th an the plain-song. Apart from the use of secular tunes the combination of o ther sacred or quasi-sacred words with the proper words of the Mass was also objected to. This practice was more frequently indulged in by early composers, and might be considered as only carrying further the earlier mediaeval practice of the insertion of texts known as Tropes and Sequences into the more florid pieces of plain-song, a practice which was only afterwards liturgically disallowed. Palestrina may be open to some blame for adopting it in his Mass ' Ecce sacerdos magnus ' as a mere compliment to a Pope, but it was less reprehensible when adopted with some degree of appropriateness to special occasions, as when on a Saint's Day a m otet in honour of the Saint was interwined with the Mass, or when Palestrin a in an Ave Maria Mass written for his own church of St. Mary makes a tenor voice sing the plain-song Ave Maria. The practice was more common in the motet than in the mass, and often adds some element of significance or beauty to the composition. To all these complaints of abuses in church music, the answer of the Council of Trent in its 22nd Session, Sept. 17, 1562, was couched in very general terms, namely, th a t from the church all music in which there was any mingling of the impure and profane should be excluded, everything th a t was inconsistent with the reverence due to churches as houses of prayer. In a later session of 1563, i Cf. Haberl, Katalog der Musikwerke im pdptlichen Archiv (Leipzig, 1887), u nder th e names Obrecht and Silva. further consideration of the subject was adjourned by the resolution to commit the carrying out in detail of this and other measures of reform to Provincial Synods, and meanwhile until such assemblies could be held, bishops with the assistance of their chapters were to take steps in the same direction in their own dioceses. T h e P a p a l C o m m i s s i o n .- In accordance with this resolution, Pius IV., in 1564, instituted a commission of eight cardinals to provide for the execution and observance of the Tridentine decrees in his own diocese of Rome, and two of their number, Cardinals Vitelozzo Vitelli and Carlo Borromeo, were specially delegated to regulate the affairs of the Papal Chapel. I t is in connexion w ith this commission, and by the free exercise of his own imagination in bold but mistaken conjectures, th a t the Abbe Baini 8 built up the romantic tale, which has so long found acceptance in musical and other histories, of Palestrina's salvation of the cause of artistic church music by his composition of the Missa Papae Marcelli. Various legends had long been current of the origin and purpose of this Mass. Baini took particular pains to demonstrate the unhistorical character of previous legends, but unfortunately substituted an equally unhistorical legend of his own invention. By research in the Roman Archives F. X. Haberl s has shown the facts to be quite otherwise than as Baini represents them. Music occupied but a small pa r t of the attention and reforming labours of the Commission. I ts main object was disciplinary. The number of the singers was reduced from 37 to 24 in accordance with the older Constitutions, a pension being awarded to those dismissed. On the other hand, the pensions previously granted to Palestrina and Domenico Ferrabosco were augmented to the same amount as the pay of the actual singers ; to Palestrina specially on the ground of compositions which he had already provided and would continue to provide for the use of the chapel. This is the only direct connexion of Palestrina with the Commission, so far as any records go. Baini wrongly infers th a t he was then created Composer to the Papal Chapel. On April 28, 1565, the diary of the chapel records th a t some masses were sung by the Papal singers before the two cardinals privately, in order to enable them to judge whether the words could be properly heard and understood. No mention is made of what these masses were, or what was the result, nor is there any record of consultations between the singers and the cardinals about other requirements of a proper church music, such as Baini professes to be able to report a t length. But finding three masses of Palestrina associated together in a MS. Codex of the Sistine archives, one, the Marcellus Mass 2 Baini, Jfemorie stortco-eritiche della vita e delle opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Rome, 1828), pp. '214-34. 3 Cf. Hab erl. Eirehenmusikaltiches Jahrbuch (1892), p p . 82-7. without any title, and another with the date inscribed 1565, Baini proceeds to make the bold conjecture th a t Cardinal Borromeo had made a special appeal to Palestrina to compose a Mass which would gave church music by satisfying the requirements of devotion as well as of art, and th a t Palestrina, to ensure success, had written three, the th ird bearing the title ' Illumina oculos meos ' as if implying a special prayer of the composer for the divine assistance in his task. Examination of this Codex proves th a t there is no real foundation for the imaginative story of Baini. The three masses had no original association with each other, b u t have only been brought together by a later rebinding of the MSS. I t is proved th a t the Mass in which the date 1565 is inscribed, is one based on Josquin's motet * Benedicta,' and an earlier copy of it is found in Munich. The date 1565 is only th a t of its transcription into the Sistine choir - books, and Baini mistakenly supposes it to belong to the Marcellus Mass. But of the Marcellus Mass an older copy, too, is found in the archives of S. Maria Maggiore, in which church it may therefore be presumed to have had its first performance. The other Mass a 6 happens to have the title ' Illumina oculos meos,' merely because its themes are taken from a motet of Andreas de Silva beginning with these words. I t is also very unlikely th a t three masses by the same composer would have been chosen for so important a trial, on which, according to Baini, so much depended. As likely as not, one of the masses sung before the cardinals may have been by Animuccia, choirmaster of St. Peter's, who also professedly made it his aim to secure the clear enunciation of the liturgical text, and even adopted a stricter a ttitude than Palestrina in the avoidance of everything bu t plain-song themes for the composition of masses. Without producing any further shred of evidence in favour of his assertion, Baini goes on to relate th a t from the three masses he mentions, the cardinals singled out the Marcellus as th a t which fully satisfied all their requirements as a model for future Mass composition, and th a t it was afterwards first publicly performed in the presence of the Pope in the Sistine Chapel on a great occasion of publio thanksgiving, June 19, 1565, when it met with universal approval and laudation. But neither the chapel diary nor the other authority which Baini quotes a t length with regard to this Papal function give the least hint as to what Mass was sung on the occasion, so th a t i t remains a pure conjecture on his pa rt th a t i t was the Marcellus Mass. His whole story must thus be dismissed into the realm of fable, and can only be regarded as a laboured a ttempt to account for the celebrity which the Mass afterwards obtained, a celebrity due to its merits and not to any official recognition. In any case all th a t the decision of the Papal Commission could possibly amount to was a reform in the repertory of the chapel itself by the exclusion of the older works in the polyphonic style which did not correspond with the new demand for the clear enunciation of the liturgical text. I t is also worth while to notice th a t Cardinal Borromeo in his own diocese of Milan seems to have interpreted this demand as requiring a more drastic reform in the style of church music th an Palestrina or the Roman School ever adopted. At Borromeo's instigation and under his patronage Vincenzo Ruffo, choirmaster a t Milan, published a book of masses claiming to be ' composte secondo la forma del Concilio Tridentino,' in which the tex t is set in simple note for note counterpoint with simultaneous utterance by all the voices, a style similar to th a t adopted in certain early English services (see S e r v i c e ) of the Reformation period by Tallis and others.1 M a s s e s a n d M a d r i g a l s .-In 1567 Palestrina published his Second Book of Masses, and, if Baini's story were true, it might be matter for surprise th a t he should dedicate it to Philip I I . of Spain, and not to one or other of the dignitaries of the Papal court, and specially to the saintly Cardinal Borromeo, who according to Baini had incited him to the composition of the work which had saved church music. In his dedication Palestrina simply says that, following the counsel of grave and religious men, he had applied his utmost zeal and industry to adorn the holy sacrifice of the Mass by a new style of musical a r t (novo m o do rum ge.ne.re). The language is hardly strong enough to warrant a supposed reference to any official approval of this new style by a Papal Commission. I t is very much the same language as in the dedication of his First Book. The masses of the Second Book are indeed more concise, and comply better with all requirements of the clear enunciation of the liturgical text. There are four a 4 : ' De Beata Virgine,' ' Inviolata,' ' Sine Nomine,' ' Ad F u g am '; two a 5 : 'Aspice Domine,' 'Salvum me fac,' and one a 6 : ' Missa Papae Marcelli.' The ' De Beata Virgine ' is based throughout on themes from the plain-song Mass ' De Beata,' and thus has the peculiarity of its different parts being based on different Church modes. The ' Inviolata ' is based on the melody of a Prose used in Advent processions. The ' Sine Nomine' has very beautiful themes which might be taken from a French chanson, which the composer has preferred not to name. I ts second Agnus is a 7 by means of a canon having three resolutions by different clefs on the same stave. ' Ad Fugam ' is only w ritten on two staves with a close canon between each pair of voices. In the Benedictus and second Agnus the canon has the device ' Trinitas in unitate.' ' Aspice Domine ' takes its leading theme from a Motet 1 Cf. Torchi, L ' arte musicals in Ita lia , vol. i. p p . 193-204. by Ja ch et of Mantua.1 * Salvum me fac ' is based on a Motet which in the complete edition of Palestrina's works Haberl includes among Opera dubia in vol. xxxi., but the close resemblance between the Mass and the Motet hardly leaves room for doubt as to the authenticity of the latter. The ' Dona nobis pacem ' a t the end of the Mass is almost note for note the same as the conclusion of the Motet. The Marcellus Mass entirely differs from these and others by being freely composed throughout without being based on any recurring set themes taken from some other source. As originally published it was without its second Agnus a 7 which has a canon with two resolutions. Baini thinks to explain the omission by supposing th a t the composer was afterwards conscious of having temporarily lost the flow of divine inspiration by too great a desire to display his mastery of contrapuntal art. A reduced edition of the Mass a 4 was published a t Milan in 1590, which is included in vol. xxx. of the complete edition among the Opera dubia. In 1609 Soriano arranged an edition a 8, and in 1619 Francesco Anerio another edition a 4, which was frequently reprinted. To a collection of madrigals a 5 entitled ' II desiderio,' published a t Venice in 1566, Palestrina contributed ' Vestiva i colli,' one of the most delightful of his secular pieces, which from its frequent republication in other collections seems to have acquired great popularity. With an adaptation to English words it is included
(b. Treport, May 24, 1886), composer and conductor. He was precociously gifted, and the influence of Dallier enabled him to overcome his family's objections to a musical career for him. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1905, becoming a pupil of Caussade and Xavier Leroux, won the first prize for harmony in 1908, and the Prix de Rome in 1911. He was taken prisoner during the war, returning in 1918. He owed it to a happy concourse of circumstances th a t he was asked to conduct, as a test, the orchestra of the Concerts Lamoureux (Feb. 1920). His success was such th a t he was made second conductor to Chevillard, whom he succeeded soon afterwards. He has proved himself a true master, particularly in classic repertory, to which he is particularly attached. As a composer, his personality is less pronounced. His works, already numerous, are sincere, finely written, occasionally a little academic. The best known are the sonata for PF. and v ln . ; the oratorio ' Jeanne d 'Arc ' (Rouen, 1921); and the symphonic poem ' Adonis trouble ' (1921), given a t the Opera in 1922 under the title ' Artemis troublee.' B i b l .- D . B o r d e t , Douze chefs d'orchestre (Paris, 1924). M. P.
(b. Cosenza, late 16th cent.), studied and lived mostly in Rome ; composed three books of madrigals and several books of sacred and secular songs in 1-5 parts, between 1615- 1633 (Q.-L.).
a slow and solemn dance, very popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. The name, derived from 4 Padovana,' 2 points to an Italian origin, although it is generally said to have come from Spain, owing to its popularity in th a t country. The Spanish pavan, however, was a variation of the original dance. According to some authorities, the name is derived from the Latin pavo, owing 2 In th e Cambridge University Library is a MS. volume of aira and dances (in Lute Tabla ture) by Dowland and Uolbome, in which there occurs a ' F adovaua de la Milanesaa.' to the fancied resemblance to a peacock's tail, caused by the robes and cloaks worn by the dancers, as they swept out in the stately figures of the dance. Several good descriptions of the pavan have come down to us. Rabelais 1 tells us th a t it was one of the 180 dances performed a t the court of the Queen of Lanternois on the visit of Pantagruel and his companions ; Tabourot, in his Orchesographie, says th a t in his time pavans were still popular, although not as much danced as formerly.2 At state balls the dancers wore their long robes, caps and swords, and the music was performed by sackbuts and oboes. In masquerades, pavans were played as processional music, and were similarly used a t weddings and religious ceremonies. Like all early dances, the pavan was originally sung as well as danced, and Tabourot gives the following example for four voices, accompanied throughout by the drum on one note & J J* Pauane d quatre 'parties. , d am tea yeulx, Qui m'oa l 'a - me r& - u i aoubz-riz gra - ci - eux, Viena to s t me ae - cou - A J J ~ " J 1 J Ou me fauld o r a mou o r i r Vieua to s t me ! J J J r)- o The treb le Bin g s D, th e a lto F. 1 Pantagruel, Bk. v., published 1562. 2 Besard, In the Preface to his Thesaurus harmonicus Divini Laurencini Romani (Coloene, 1603) after praising th e sweetness and elegance of the English mtwic of his day, makes particular mention of th e 'Pavans, adding th a t the word ' Pavan * is nothine else th an th e Ita lian ' P ad u an a .' He also mentions th a t the French often call their Passomezzos, Pavans. Sir John Davies in his Orchestra (1596) ha" the following curious verses, in which the motions of the sun and the moon are compared to dancers of pavans and galliards : ' For that braue Sunne the Father of the Day, Doth loue this Earth, the Mother of the N ight; And like a reuellour in rich array, Doth daunce his galliard in his lemman's sight, Both back, and forth, and sidewaies, passing light. ' Who doth not see the measures of the Moone, Which thirteene times she daunceth euery yeare ? And ends her pauine thirteene times as soone As doth her brother.' There are numerous specimens extant of pavans by instrumental composers of the 16th and 17th centuries, and in almost every case the pavan is followed by a galliard, the two thus anticipating the saraband and gigue of the later suite. Thus Morley (Introduction, P a r t 3), after speaking of Fantasies, s a y s : * The next in grauity and goodnes vnto this is called a pauane, a kind of staide musicke, ordained for graue dauncing, and most commonlie made of three straines, whereof euerie straine is plaid or sung twice, a straine they make to containe 8, 12 or 16 semibreues as they list, yet fewer then eight I liaue not seene in any pauan. . . . After euery pauan we vsually set a galliard.' And Butler (Principles of Music, 1636), speaking of the Doric mode, has the following : ' Of this sort are Pavins, invented for a slow and soft kind of Dancing, altogether in duple Proportion. Unto which are framed Galliards for more quick and nimble motion, always in triple proportion, and therefore the triple is oft called Galliard-time and the duple, Pavin-time.' Amongst the best known of these forerunners of the Suite, we may mention John Dowland's ' Lachrymae or Seauen Teares, figured in seauen passionate Pauans with diuera other Pauans, Galliards and Almands ' (1605) ; and Johann Ghro's 30 pavans and galliards ' nach teutscher a r t gesetzet ' (1604). For another description of the dance see Bishop Earle's Microcosmographie, ed. by Bliss (Nares's Glossary). The Spanish pavan, a variety of the original dance which came from Spain (where it was called the ' Grand Dance,') was of a more elaborate character than the original. Judging from the frequent occurrence of its air in the early English Lute and Virginal Books, it must have become very popular in England.3 The following is the tune which Tabourot gives for i t : it is not the same as th a t which is found in the English books. s In S ta r te r 's Friesehe Lust H o f (1634) I t Is called * Engelsche indraeyende Dana Londeateyn.'
A pentatone is a scale of five notes, i.e. in which the octave is reached on the sixth note. This involves some of the notes being more than a tone apart. Similarly six-note scales are hexatones and seven-note may be called, for distinction, heptatones. No instances are found of a scale with less than five notes to the octave, and those with more th an seven are rare or doubtful. A tetrachord is the interval of a fourth with one or two, seldom more, interior notes. Tlio 1 Bibl Provincial and Cathedral. 2 S e e Haberl, Hamteine, iii. p . 69. remainder of the octave (another tetrachord and a tone) is a pentachord. The additional tone is called the disjunctive tone. A tone is obtained by ascending a fifth and descending a fourth, or vice versa ; but the ear is cognisant of the interval long before it makes this analysis. T o n a l P e n t a t o n i c .- The study of presentday primitive music (the only and the sufficient substitute for antiquity of record) shows certain tendencies in scale-making. The vocal scale, the first stage, proceeds downward ; the instrumental, later and more precise, upward. After some first tentative efforts the te tra chord is taken as the basis. The tetrachord is filled first with one note, later with two. As this becomes familiar the compass is gradually enlarged to two tetracliords, the central note being usually the tonic. From these tendencies, which are supported by copious evidence, we may argue to an early form of scale such as I 1 As instruments came in, with diverse pitch and compass, fragments or extensions of this came into use, and eventually the five pentatones became familiar, though locally one or two of them were preferred to the others. S e m i t o n a l P e n t a t o n i c .-So far we have considered pentatones as based only on the octave and fifth and their derivatives, fourth and tone. But in some parts of the world- China, Jap an and India, for instance-the major third also became audible, and this, when placed inside the fourth, gave the semitone. Hence the tetrachord, giving another set of five pentatones. H e x a t o n e s , e t c .-As the pentatones, either tonal or semitonal, became familiar, their tetrachords were variously constituted
(b. Rome, Oct. 4 , 1812 ; d. Passy, May 3, 1867), one of the most accomplished singers of the 19th century. She was the second daughter of Nicolo Tacchinardi, who had fitted up a little theatre for the use of his pupils a t his country house, near Florence, and here, a t 11 years of age, Fanny played a principal part. In 1830 she married the composer Giuseppe Persiani (1804-69), and in 1832 made her debut a t Leghorn, in 1 Francesca da Rimini,' an opera by Fournier, where she replaced Madame Caradori. Her success was sufficient to lead to her subsequent engagement a t Milan and Florence, then a t Vienna, where she made a great impression, afterwards a t Padua and a t Venice. Here she played in 1 Romeo e Giulietta,' ' II pirata,' ' La gazza ladra,' * L' elisir d ' amore ' and ' Tancredi,' in the last two of which she performed with Pasta. Her success was complete. In 1834, a t Naples, Donizetti wrote for her his ' Lucia di Lammermoor,' which always remained a favourite p a r t with her. When she first appeared a t the Opera in Paris (in Lucia, Dec. 12, 1837) she was much admired by connoisseurs, but her talents hardly met with the recognition they deserved until after her excellent performance of the p a r t of Carolina in the ' Matrimonio segreto.' Her first appearance in London (1838) was as Amina in the ' Sonnambula,' and, although she had been preceded in the pa rt by Malibran and Grisi, she achieved a success which increased a t each performance. She was always, however, a greater favourite with artists and connoisseurs than with the public a t largo. This was partly due to the poverty of her stagepresence. She was exceedingly refined in appearance, but small and thin, with a long, colourless face, not unsightly, like her father, but, as Chorley puts it, ' pale, plain and anxious,' with no beauty but her profusion of fine fair hair, while in her dress she was singularly tasteless. Her voice, too, was against her rather than in her favour ; i t was a thin acute soprano, of great range upwards, clear and penetrating, but not full or mellow, blending ill with other voices, and always liable to rise in pitch. But the finish of her singing has been rarely equalled, probably never surpassed. As an actress she preserved sensibility, grace and refinement, b u t lacked passion and animation. From 1838 she sang alternately in London and Paris for many years. Fetis says th a t a sudden hoarseness, which attacked her in London in 1843, proved the beginning of a throat-complaint th a t ultimately forced her to quit the stage for ever. But she sang in London, in opera, in 1847, 1848 and 1849, and a t the Italiens, in Paris, in Oct. 1848. In 1850 she went to Holland, and subsequently to Russia. After performing in almost all the principal countries of Europe, she, in 1858, accepted an engagement from E. T. Smith and appeared a t Drury Lane in several of her old parts-Linda, Elvira in ' I Puritani,' Zerlina in 'Don Giovanni,' etc. In December of th a t year Madame Persiani took up her residence in Paris, but afterwards removed to Italy. Her portrait, by Chalon, in water-colours, was in the collection of the late Julian Marshall. F. A. M.
(Ital. fagotto, fagoto), a reed instrument invented or, rather, evolved by Afranio Albonese of Pavia (see A f r a n i o ) . A careful examination of his nephew Teseo's description, together with th a t of a manuscript sheet of instructions for the instrument, discovered in 1893 by Count Valdrighi amongst the state archives a t Modena 1 makea it quite evident th a t the phagotus, whatever its name implied, was but an advanced form of bagpipe. I ts history is interesting and romantic. Afranio was residing for a time in Pannonia on the borders of the modern Serbia, and, taking the popular bagpipe of the country called ' piva,' with its double chanter and no drones, as his model, he endeavoured to extend and deepen its compass. His efforts failed, as the instrument would not stay in tune ; so, when he returned to Italy, he left it behind him. In 1521, some years later, Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, was taken by Sultan Soliman and the district ravaged ; but the instrument was rescued and brought as a curiosity to Italy. There it came into the hands of Afranio once more, and he, with the help of a mechanic of Ferrara named Ravilio, a t length perfected it. For a t a feast given a t Mantua by the Duke of Ferrara in 1532 ' ii Revd0 Mess: Affranio [sic] ' played a solo upon his ' fagotto ' between the fifth and sixth courses. Apparently more than one instrument of the kind was made, as the MS. Instructions mentioned above (dated 1565) were given by Teseo to a friend to whom he had also presented ' uno de suoi fagoti,' with strict injunctions, however, that he should not divulge the method of playing it to any except his own sons. Two illustrations of the phagotus, as they appear in Teseo's work of the year 1539, are given on P L A T E L V I I I . I t will be seen th a t the instrument took the form of the letter H, and consisted of two pillars about 22 inches in height joined together by cross-pieces, the shorter central pillar being purely ornamental. Each side pillar was divided into an upper and a lower p a r t : the upper pa rt was bored with two parallel cylindrical tubes united a t the top, thus forming one continuous tube, pierced with holes for the fingers and keys. The lower part of each pillar contained the reed similar to th a t of the piva, viz. a single-beating reed of the clarinet type ; but in this perfected instrument the reeds were made of thin metal like those of the regal. The left-hand pillar or tube, with a reed of silver, provided a diatonic scale of 10 notes from tenor C upwards, while the pillar fingered by the right hand was fitted with a reed of brass and also had a compass of 10 notes, from G below the bass stave to bass Bq. By cross-fingering chromatic notes could be obtained and either pillar silenced or sounded a t will by a special key. From the back of the instrument, which was rested on the knees during performance, witha cordround the neck, a flexible pipe passed to a bag held under the left arm ; this formed an air reservoir, being supplied with wind from bellows fastened under 1 Cf, Musurgiana Scries LL, No. 2 ; Modena, 1895. and actuated by the right arm, as in the Northumbrian and Irish pipes. The bellows and the reservoir are shown in one of the illustrations on the ground on either side of the instrument. The phagotus was used by the Canon Afranio, not for 'vain and amatory melodies' but for ' divine songs and hymns.' The music could be played either in one or two parts as desired, and Teseo in his Instructions says th a t he had seen a phagotus with three large pillars or sets of tubes. As for the name, Teseo in his work on the Chaldaic Language introduces the whole subject from a grammarian's point of view, ' phagotus ' suggesting to him a derivation from the Greek word * phago ' (I eat), because the instrument ' devours and fills itself with all musical notes, and having digested them gives them forth again.' Later on he seems a little doubtful as to this derivation, and suggests th a t the word may come from ' fagus ' (a beech tree), or even from ' faunus.' As will have been noticed, however, the manuscript instructions and the programme of the feast give the name as * fagoto ' or ' fagotto.' Probably the Italian form of the word was applied to the instrument as a nickname because it looked so like ' a bundle of sticks ' : when latinised it bec ame * phagotus.' From this brief description it will be gathered th a t neither in shape, reed or bore had the phagotus anything in common with the bassoon ; but it is quite possible th a t Afranio's efforts anticipated and popularised the doubling of the cylindrical tube as found in the sordoni and doppioni of a little later date and in ' the short instruments called Dulceuses ' of which Henry VIII. died possessed. At any rate the inventor showed what could be achieved by a more elaborate and perfected use of key mechanism. F. w. a.
(b. Bergamo, Jan. 8, 1822 ; d. Crocetta di Nozzo, July 18, 1901), violoncellist, was the son of Antonio Piatti (b. Bergamo, 1801), a violinist of some repute, who held the post of leader in the orchestra of his native town. At the age of 5 Piatti began to study the instrument which was destined to make him famous, receiving instruction from his greatuncle, Zanetti, an accomplished violoncellist, and a patient teacher. After two years' study, Zanetti, considering his pupil sufficiently advanced, obtained permission for him to play in the theatre orchestra. Before the beginning of tho following season, Zanetti died, and the youthful Alfredo was elected his successor in the orchestra. M a y r (q.v.), who was a t th a t time the maestro di cappella, took a particular fancy to the young artist, and on one occasion, during a festival held by four orchestras in the neighbouring village of Caravaggio, singled Piatti out to play a solo, which by rights should have fallen to Merighi, an experienced artist and professor a t tho Milan Conservatoire. This episode piqued the elder virtuoso, and when in 1832-a t the age of 10-Piatti sought to become a scholar a t th a t institution, Merighi was the only professor who opposed his admittance. Eventually, however, Piatti was granted a five years' scholarship. At the age of 15 J he made his public debut as a soloist on Sept. 21, 1837, a t a Conservatoire concert. He performed a concerto of his own composition, and received as a prize the instrument upon which he played. Returning to Bergamo, Piatti resumed his post in the orchestra, played nightly a t the opera, and accompanied his father to every neighbouring village where a likely opportunity for playing a solo presented itself. After a time he gave a concert a t Turin ; played a t the Karnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, and, his engagement a t the Bergamo Theatre coming to an end owing to a misunderstanding, gave concerts in various towns in and about Italy. At Pest he fell ill, and having no reserve funds, was reduced to selling his violoncello. Fortunately a friend from Bergamo heard of his difficulties, and came and assisted him to return to his native town. The journey necessitated a stoppage a t Munich, where Piatti made the acquaintance of Liszt. Liszt encouraged him to go to Paris, where ho arrived in 1844. Here he came in contact with Habeneck, received a present of an Amati violoncello from Liszt, and composed his 'Chant religieux,' and ' Sonnambula.' In the same year occurred Pia tti's first visit to England, making his debut before an English audience a t the Annual Grand Morning Concert given by Mrs. Anderson a t Her Majesty's Theatre on May 31, 1844. The critics ranked him a t once as an artist of extraordinary excellence. I t was a t this same concert th a t (as Pia tti was wont to tell the story in after years) a ' little fat boy with ruddy cheeks and a short jacket all over buttons, stepped on the platform and played the violin.' This was Joseph Joachim, whose name in after years was so closely associated with th a t of Piatti. On June 24 he played a t the Philharmonic. After touring in the provinces, Scotland and Ireland in the autumn, with Sivori, Dohler, Lablache and Belletti, he returned to Milan. From the end of 1844 to the latter pa rt of the year 1845 ho toured in Russia with Dohler. One outcome of his visit was the composition of his ' Mazurka sentimentale ' (op. 6), the ' Air Baskyr ' - suggested to him by a man who occasionally played upon a bagpipe under his window a t St. Petersburg-and the ' Fantaisie Russe.' Pia tti's second visit to England took place in 1846, when he made his debut as a quartetplayer a t the benefit concert of the director of the Musical Union a t Willis's Rooms; and on May 4, 1847, played a t the private matinee given by the Beethoven Quartet Society on tho occasion of Mendelssohn's last visit to England. During the autumn of 1850 Piatti frequently played solos a t the National Concerts, which were held a t Her Majesty's under the direction of Balfe ; and a t the Sacred Harmonic Society's opening concert of the season, Dec. 5, 1851, he replaced Lindlev, on his retirement. On tho establishment of the Popular Concerts Pia tti was engaged, his long association with them beginning on Jan. 3, 1859, and ending with his retirement in 1898. Besides P ia tti's active work as a soloist, he developed his powers of composition under Moliquo ; in his own estimation hi3 most important works were his six sonatas for violoncello and piano, which were composed for the Popular Concerts. He also wrote two concertos, and a concertino for violoncello and orchestra played a t the Crystal Palace Concerts. Besides his original compositions Pia tti collected and edited classical solos of pa st centuries. As an a r tis t Piatti gained an unsurpassable reputation (see V i o l o n c e l l o - p l a y i n g ) . His absolute command of technical difficulties, combined with his purity of tone, faultless intonation, exquisite delicacy, and perfect phrasing of cantabile passages, brought him the homage not only of the public, but also of his fellow-artists. The reverential esteem which was felt towards him in England was never more apparent than on the occasion of the ' Joachim-Piatti Jubilee,' on Mar. 22, 1894, a t the Grafton Galleries, where a reception was organised by Grove and Mackenzie to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the English debut of these virtuosi in 1844. In his own country Pia tti's appearances were perforce rare owing to his popularity in England, but when-- after an absence of eighteen years-he played a t a concert given to raise funds to defray the expenses of a monument to Donizetti a t Bergamo (Oct. 18, 1893) he was received with wild enthusiasm. The warmth of tho reception was enhanced by tho presentation of the grade of Commendatoro in the Order of tho Crown of Italy, which was conferred upon him by King Umberto. Piatti was a keen bibliophile and a remarkable connoisseur of fiddles and violoncellos. For the last twenty years of his life he resided a t No. 15 Northwick Terrace, London, but after tho purchase of his property-- called Villa Pia tti-near Cadenabbia on the Lake of Como, he retired to his Italian homo after the strenuous labours of tho London musical season, returning to Northwick Terrace in the autumn. The last months of his life were passed a t Crocetta di Nozzo, about four miles from Bergamo, the residence of his daughter, Countess Lochis, where he died from disease of the heart. After his death the professors and students of the Bergamo school of music kept solemn watch by the body until it was laid in its last resting-place in the private chapel of the Lochis family. Tho public funeral took place on July 22, and wTas attended by the Prefect, the Mayor, members of Parliament and representatives of the leading musical societies. Four professors played the andante from Schubert's quartet in D minor, according to Pia tti's express wish, and a week later visited the Lochis chapel again, and made a compact to perform the qua rte t annually on the anniversary of the master's death. Piatti's wife, Mary Ann Lucey Welsh, only daughter of Thomas Welsh, a professor of singing, only survived her husband for a few months. The marriage took place a t Wolchester, near Stroud, in 1856, b u t the union was not a happy one and ended in separation. The only surviving daughter of the marriage became the wife of Count Lochis, who died in 1899, leaving tho widowed Countess with two children, Marchesita and Alfredo, who was named after his grandfather. Concerto, op. 8 , v 'cl. and PF., Mainz, 1863 ; Nocturne, op. 2, v 'cl. P F., Mainz, 1863 ; Siciliana, v 'cl. and P F., Mainz, 1863 ; Dodici capricci per il violoncello, Berlin, 1875 ; Concerto, v 'cl. and orchestra, Berlin, 1872 ; Concerto, v 'cl. and orchestra, Leipzig, 1877 ; F antasia romanesca, Berlin, 1885 ; Serenata, for two v'cls. and PF., London, 1890; Romanza perviolino; Bergamasna; Chant religieux ; Souvenir d'Em s ; Mazurka sentimentale, op. 6 ; Air Baskyr, op. 8 , F antaisie ru s se ; Danza moresca, and numerous songs with violoncello obbligato. TRANSCRIPTIONS AND ARRANGEMENTS 8 ei lezionl per la viola d ' amore (d' Attilio Ariosti) ridotti per il violoncello d a P i a t t i ; six Sonatas bv Boccherini, also Sonatas of L o c atelli; Veracini, and Porpora ; Kummer's Violoncello Method ; 1st Sonata of Marcello ; Mendelssohn's Lieder ohne Worte ; Three melodies of S c h u b e r t ; Variations of Christopher Simpson. B i b l .- M o r t o n L a t h a m . Alfredo Piatti ; P r a t t , People of the Period ; M a s o n C l a r k e , Dictionary of Fiddlers; F i t i s ; Mux. T" Aug. 1901, with p o r t r a i t ; Athen(rum, Mar. 31, 1894, and contemporary d a t e s ; Times, Ju ly 20, 1901; Graphic, Ju ly 27, 1904, with p o rtra it. 0 . ]t . and E. H . -A .
(b. Sinalunga, Siena, May 9,1829 ; d. Florence, Mar. 10, 1888), was grounded in music and the piano by his father ; a t 10 he played in public ; a t 11, being in Rome, he was made honorary member of the Accademia Filarmonica, and was taken to England by Henry Drummond, M.P., in whose house he resided until 1845, studying the pianoforte and composition under Cipriani Potter, and the violin under H. Blagrove. In 1845 he returned home, and entered the Conservatorio a t Bologna, where he became the private pupil of Rossini, taking a degree there in 1847. In 1848 he went back to England and started as a teacher of singing, dividing his time between London and Newcastle. His first opera, ' II mercante di Venezia,' was brought out a t Bologna, Nov. 8, 1873 ; a second, ' Mattia Corvino,' a t La Seala a t Milan, Mar. 24, 1877 ; and a third, ' Margherita,' a t Venice in 1882. In 1859 he composed the Te Deum for tho annexation of Tuscany to the Italian kingdom, and was decorated with tho order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus. In 1878 King Humbert further created him a knight of the Italian crown. In 1871 ho represented Italy a t the opening festival of the International Exhibition, and contributed a hymn to words by Lord Houghton, beginning, ' 0 people of this favoured land.' From 1856 ho was professor of singing a t the R.A.M. In addition to a large circle of pupils of all ranks, many eminent artists have profited by his counsels, as Grisi, Bosio, Patti, Ronconi, Graziani, Mario, etc. His part-songs were for long great favourites with the singing-societies of England. The list of his published compositions embraces more than 230 songs, English and Italian, 35 duets, 14 trios, 45 partsongs and choruses and 30 PF. pieces, the Te Deum and the opera 1II mercante di Venezia ' already mentioned. Q.