Sir Herbert Stanley, Mus.D. (b. Ealing, July 22, 1830 ; d. Eastbourne, Oct. 26, 1903), second son of Sir Herbert Oakeley, Bart., was educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford. He graduated B.A. in 1853 and M.A. in 1856. He studied harmony under Dr. Stephen Elvey, and the organ under Dr. Johann Schneider at Dresden, and completed his musical studies at Leipzig, with Prof. Breidenstein of Bonn. In 1865 he was elected professor of music in the University of Edinburgh. He received his Mus.D. degree from the Archbishop of Canterbury (Tait) in 1871, and was knighted in 1876. He received in 1879 the degree of Mus.D. from the University of Oxford, and in 1881 that of LL.D. from the University of Aberdeen ; he was created in the same year composer of music to Her Majesty in Scotland. In 1886 the University of Toronto conferred on him the degree of D.C.L., and in 1887 he received the degree of Mus.D. from the University of Dublin. In 1891 he resigned the Edinburgh professorship, and was made Emeritus Professor in the following year. A year after his death a memoir by his brother, E. M. Oakeley, was published in London. Among his own publications are many songs, with pianoforte or orchestral accompaniment, twenty of which were published in a ' Jubilee A(bum ' dedicated to Queen Victoria; three vocal du e ts ; twelve partsongs ; students' songs and choral arrangements of eighteen Scottish National melodies, and of various others for male voices. For the church, some dozen anthems, a Jubilee Cantata for 1887, a motet with orchestral accompaniment, a Morning and Evening Service and many hymn-tunes. He also published a few of his compositions for pianoforte and organ, and for orchestra, including a festal and a funeral march. Sir Herbert Oakeley had a remarkable gift of improvisation, and was an organ-player of ex ceptional ability. During his tenure of the professorship he gave a great impulse to the public performance of music at the Reid Concert (q .v .) ; he inaugurated an annual festival which did a good work for some years. w. H. H.
a non d is t in g u i sh e d Polish family. ' (1) Prince Michae l C'as imir (b. Warsaw, 1731 ; d. there, 1803) resided at Slonin in Lithuania, where he maintained an establishment of orchestra and singers. He is said to have invented the addition of pedals to the harp, and to have proposed the Creation to Haydn as the subject of an oratorio. He formed a canal between two rivers at his own expense-a national work, which connected the Baltic with the Black Sea. (2) His nephew, Michae l Cl eopas (b. Gutzow, near Warsaw, Sept. 25, 1765 ; d. Florence, Oct. 31, 1833), was grand treasurer of Lithuania and senator of the Russian Empire. Of his diplomatic and literary achievements we need not speak. In the matter of music he was a pupil of Kozlowski's, and was known for his Polonaises. Of these fourteen are published, one of which became very widely celebrated owing to its merit and to a romantic story attached to its origin. I t was printed in the Musical Library, with the story referred to. Twelve others were printed in the Hannonicon of 1824. He also wrote songs to French words. During his residence in Paris in 1823 Prince Oginski was well known in the best musical circles. He died at Florence and was buried in Santa Maria Novella. (3) Prince Ga b r ie l (b. 1788 ; d. Lithuania, 1843), though a musician and violin-player, i T h e y f o rm t h e f i f t h v c l . o f A l f l e r i 's e d i t i o n a n d t h e n i n t h o f B r e l t k o p f 's . B u r n e y h a s p r i n t e d on
a little opera, generally of a buffo oharacter, too short to furnish an evening's amusement, but useful as an afterpiece or Intermezzo. We can scarcely point out more oharming examples of the style than Mozart's * Schauspieldirektor ' and Rossini's ' L' inganno felice.' Both these little masterpieces are in one act, and this condition is really an essential characteristic of the Operetta ; in England the term has been loosely applied to a work better described as Comic Op e r a (q.v.), which has no time limitation. In Italy the dialogue of the Operetta is always carried on in recitativo secco. In England, Germany and France it is spoken. w. s. r .
the first attempt towards a collection of Henry Purcell's vocal music. I t was issued by Henry Playford, in folio, shortly after the composer's death, and the first volume, which is dedicated to Lady Elizabeth Howard, is dated 1098. The second bears the date 1702, and both have the portrait engraved by White after Closterman. The second edition has the dates 1706 and 1711 (also in two volumes), and the third edition 1721. Of this last named few copies appear to have been printed, for Handel's music had begun to be more in favour than Purcell's. About 1735 John Walsh published a volume of Purcell's songs under the title ' Orpheus Britannicus,' pp. 120, these being printed from engraved plates, which had been used for single songs. The title-page of the original issue of 1698 ru n s : * Orpheus Britannicus, a collection of all th e choicest songs for One, Two, and Three voices, composed by Mr. Henry Purcell ; together with such symphonies for violins or flutes as were by him designed for any of them, and a Thorough-bass to each song figured for the Organ, Harpsichord, o r Theorbo lute. London : printed by J . Heptinstall for Henry Playford in the Temple Change in F le e t St. m d c x c v x h . ' fol. F
(d. June 1790), organist of Isleworth in 1760 and scholar of Dr. Boyce, whose MSS. on the theory of musio he acquired, enjoyed much repute as a theorist. He composed an ' Epithalamium ' for the marriage of George II I. in 1761, ' Twelve Sonatas for two Violins and a Violoncello,' published in 1763.3 In 1783 he published A Brief Account of, and Introduction to Eight Lectures on the Science of Music. (It does not appear that the lectures were ever delivered.) A canon for eight voices by him, ' Glory be to the Father,' is printed in Warren's collection. In his will, dated 1781, he described himself as ' Student in Music.' He was buried on June 25, 1790. His library was sold in 1791, when his MSS. (including those of Dr. Boyce), passed into the hands of Callcott. w. H. H.
(b. Dublin, May 1870), son of R. V. O'Brien, a Dublin organist, studied at the R.I.A.M. and was organist of Rathmines R.C. church (1885-88), and of the Carmelite church, Dublin (1897-99). He produced an opera, ' Hester,' in 1893, and in 1902 was appointed musical director of the pro-Cathedral Palestrina Choir, a post which he still (1926) fills with distinction. John MacCormack was one of his discoveries in 1902, and he was musical director of MacCormack's first world tour in 1913. w. H. G. F.
The popular name of the Royal Victoria Hall, Waterloo Road, S.E., at which performances of opera in English and of Shakespeare plays are given regularly at popular prices. This theatre, originally known as the Royal Coburg Theatre, was opened in 1818 for the best kind of theatrical performance ; in 1833 it was re-named the Royal Victoria Theatre-it was here that Paganini gave his ' farewell ' concert -and after some years of prosperity became the home of melodrama and eventually a place where the entertainment was frequently accompanied by drunkenness and disorder. At this moment the lease was acquired by a small company at the instigation of Emma Cons, an ardent social reformer, and as the Royal Victoria Coffee Hall, the theatre was reopened on Boxing Day, 1880, to provide entertainment of a more refined nature and without drink. In 1884 the lease was taken over by a body of trustees, chiefly owing to the help of Samue) i In America the tu n e is commonly called ' Old Hundred ' ; prob. ably an English provincialism imported by some of the earl) colonists.
(b. Palencia, c. 1500; 11. Rome, 1550), Spanish church composer. He went to Rome and entered the Capella Pontificia (Apr. 29, 1539) some four years after Morales, being described as of the diocese of Palencia. In 1545 (Jan. 11) he was created Abbas, and was among the singers who took part in the opening ceremony of the Council of Trent (Dec. 13, 1545). He also accompanied the council when it removed to Bologna in 1547. (The question of church music did not come up until 1562.) In 1549 Ordonez was still a member of the Capella Pontificia, and is mentioned as having leave of absence to visit some baths near Bologna. MSS. of his works exist in certain Spanish cathedrals. J . B. T.
(d. Jan. 17G9), a popular composer of the middle of the 18th century. He was originally a dancing-master at Dunfermline, and is first heard of in Aug. 1734, when he advertises in the Caledonian Mercury that he is publishing a collection of minuets. In 1736 he had taken up his residence in Edinburgh, and appears to have made a position quickly as a performer on the violin, as organist, composer and as teacher of dancing. From here he issued several collections of ' Scots Tunes ' and chamber music. He advertised in 1740 that he was leaving for Italy, but it is doubtful whether he ever made the journey, though it is certain that in 1741 he left Edinburgh for London. His departure from Scotland is made the subject of a poetical ' Epistle ' in the Scots Magazine for October 1741, which gives many interesting details of his compositions, his arrangements and his playing. Especially significant are the lines- ' Or w h e n some t e n d e r t u n e c omp o s e a g a in A n d c h e a t th e tow n w i ' D a v id K iz o 's n am e . ' Arrived in London, probably with influence from the Earl of Bute, he seems to have obtained patronage from the Prince and Princess of Wales, to whom he dedicated some of his works, and it is not unlikely he had some share in the early musical education of their son, afterwards George III., to whom he was appointed chamber composer in 1761. As court patronage would certainly not supply all necessities, there are indications that he obtained employment with J o h n S im p s o n (q.v.), who published all Oswald's early London work. I t must be confessed that Oswald's life in London is much of a mystery, but it is pretty well ascertained that though his name had some degree of value, he worked both anonymously and under assumed names. I t is likely that Oswald was a sort of musical editor to the s e v e r a l miscellaneous collections which Simpson published. Simpson having died in 1747, Oswald about this date set up a music-shop on the north side of St. Martin's Church, at the comer of St. Martin's Lane. From this address were published many works of antiquarian musical interest, including the well-known collection of Scots tunes, twelve parts, entitled ' The Caledonian Pocket Companion,' the two first having been issued by John Simpson ; ' Airs for the Spring,' ' Summer,' ' Autumn ' and ' Winter ' ; his several collections of ' Scots Tunes,' etc. etc. ' The Comic Tunes in Queen Mab . . . by the Society of the Temple of Apollo ' and ' Six Solos . . . by I. R. Esq.' (General Reid) were afterwards republished with a mysterious note that they were really by the ' late Mr. Oswald, who for certain reasons could not openly claim them during his life.' 'The Music in the Masque of Alfred . . . by the Society of the Temple of Apollo ' (not Dr. Arne's) was doubtless one of these anonymous compositions. The mysterious ' Society of the Temple of Apollo ' was apparently a small society of musicians gathered round Oswald1 which included Charles Burney, and probably John R e id (then Captain, afterwards General, q.v.) and the Earl of Kelly. The several works which bear this society's name were all published by Oswald. Meanwhile Oswald's name as composer of music for the popular fashionable song is very frequent in collections of the period, and one set of songs, ' Colin's Kisses,' attained some degree of fame. He died, so far as can be ascertained, in Jan. 1769, and was buried on the 9th of that month at Knebworth. T h e w r i t e r broached the theory in The Minstrelsy of England, first series (Bayley Ferguson), that to Oswald we are indebted for either the composition of G od s a v e t h e K in o (q.v.), or for its modern revival. F. K.
or Walter of Evesham (13th cent.), as he appears to have been indifferently called, probably took his name from Oddington, in Gloucestershire. I t has been the fashion among musical historians to identify him with the Walter, monk of Canterbury, whose election to the primacy was quashed by the Pope in 1229; but unfortunately the true spelling of his name was Einesham or Eynsham. The subject of this article could not have been born much before the middle of the 13th century, if, as appears beyond doubt, he was the Walter de Evesham who is referred to in a list of mathematicians as living in 1316. Upon this supposition we may accept the date, 1280, at which Leland states that Odington was flourishing. In all probability his musical works were written early in his life, his latter days being given up to astronomy, in which science he is known to have been proficient from several treatises which have come down to us. His only known musical work was the De speculatione musices, of which there is a MS. copy in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Another copy is supposed to have been contained in one of the Cotton MSS. of which the remains are now at the British Museum. In this treatise Walter shows himself a sound musician as well as a learned writer, supplying in almost all cases examples of his own composition. Tho principal subjects he handles are musical intervals, notation, rhythm, musical instruments and harmony, which latter term he uses instead of the old ' discan tus ' ; he gives interesting definitions of such words as 'rondeau,' 1 m otet' (which he calls ' motus brevis cantilenae '), etc. But the treatise is especially important for the study of rhythm in the 13th century. I t was printed, by no means accurately, by Coussemaker (Scriptores, i.) in 1864, and was discussed at length by Riemann. All that is known of his life is that he was a Benedictine of the monastery at Evesham, and that he was at Oxford, as stated above, in 1316. He compiled a calendar, beginning with the year 1301 ; and lodged in Merton College about 1330. (d.N.B.) a . h .-h .