A, the sixth note of the major scale in the nomenclature of France and Italy. See A ; HEXACHORD ; SOLMISATION.
(16th-17th cent.), Venetian composer of a large quantity of church m u s ic ; some call him a pupil of Palestrina, others of Zarlino (Q.-L.).
(b. Hamburg, Sept. 21, 1832 ; d. Berlin, June 9, 1892), author, composer and violinist. His early general education was received at the Johanneum in Berlin, and in 1849 he entered the Leipzig Conservatorium, where his violinteacher was David and his composition-master Richter. On leaving Leipzig Langhans went to Paris to study the violin further under Alard. For five seasons, 1 8 5 2-5 6 , he played first violin in the Gewandhaus orchestra in Leipzig ; from 1 85 7 -6 0 was Konzertmeister at Dusseldorf; and then settled temporarily, as teacher and violinist, in Hamburg, Paris and Heide(berg. From 1 8 74-81 he was professor of the history of music at Kullak's Neue Akademie der Tonkunst, when he joined Scharwenka's newly founded Conservatorium, and ultimately acted as its director. In 1871 the University of Heide(berg conferred the degree of Doctor upon Langhans, who was an honorary member of the Liceo Filarmonico of Florence and of the St. Cecilia at Rome. He visited England in 1881, and subsequently, after hearing some openair music in Glasgow, the Worcester Festival, and ' Patience ' in London, wrote articles on music in England for the Musikalisches Centra(blatt. Langhans's compositions, which include a string quartet that gained a prize offered by a Florentine gentleman in 1864, a violin sonata, and a symphony, are quite unimportant; but his literary work has been more prized. I t includes Das musikalische Urtheil (1 8 7 2 ) ; Die Musikgeschichte in 12 Vortragen (1 8 7 8 ) ; a Oeschichte der Musik des 17., 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts in continuation of Ambros, and a history of the Berlin Hochschule. In 1858 he married the pianist Luise Japha, a pupil of Robert and Clara Schumann. R. H. L.
The history of Latvian music consists of two epochs : (1) popular musio as a naive and direct expression of the people's common emotion, and (2) artistic music, as a conscious and elaborated expression of the individual's action of the mind or soul. (1) P opular Mu s ic .-The popular songs existed long before the establishment of Christianity by Germans, who invaded and conquered Latvia in the 12th century (about 1158). We find the texts of popular songs celebrating pagan idols. But the greatest part of the popular songs collected until now have their origin in the age of Catholicism, i.e. from the 13th-16th century. After the introduction of Lutheranism (1530) the German barons tightened their hold, and Protestant pastors tried by all means to abolish the Latvian popular songs. Forcibly introducing not only German hymn tunes for singing in church, but also German secular songs (translated into Latvian) for singing in the schools and in the home, they nearly succeeded in banishing all Latvian characteristics. The first full account of Latvian songs and singing, dating from 1632 (Syntagma de origine Livonarum di Fridericus Menius), shows that the popular songs written down about the end of the 16th century are like those of the 17th. A great many songs perished, because they were handed down from mouth to m outh; some which survived were put on paper only in the 19th century. The most zealous and conscientious collector of the popular songs, Andrejs Jurjans (1856-1922), only began to gather them about the year 1890. The musical material now gathered surpasses 2000 numbers, consisting of songs, dance tunes and fragments of instrumental music. The tunes of the prehistoric epoch moved in the limits of a fourth and were performed more in a declamatory than in a singing manner. The tunes of the next epoch were more melodious, and moved in the limits of an octave. These tunes were sung in solo as well as in chorus, in unison or in octaves. Besides common measures we find an abundance of measures of five, seven and other mixed times. The principal musical intruments of the ancient Latvians were (1) the Kokles, a species of harp with broad and long sounding-board, furnished with five to seven strings ; (2) Aza Rags, a goat's or bull's horn with a mouthpiece like that of our modern brass wind instruments, and with three or five holes forfingering; (3) Bungas, primitive drums; and (4) various wooden trumpets and fifes made in a simple manner. Particularly beloved was the Kokles as an instrument for accompaniment to singing. (2) Ar t ist ic Mu s ic.-This branch of Latvian music could arise and unfold itself only after the emancipation of the serfs in Livonia and Courland (1819); the Latvian's affection for music showed itself in the four-part vocal music, and displayed itself particularly about the end of the last century, when choral societies existed not only in towns, but also in the country. In the beginning the choral societies sang separately, then the neighbouring societies jointly, and finally from all Latvia together ; in 1873 tho first general singing festival in Riga had 1000 singers ; in 1880, the 2nd, 1627 ; in 1888, the 3rd, 2618 ; in 1895, the 4th, 4 000; and in 1910, the 5th festival had 6000 singers (from about 250 singing societies). That was a considerable success for an agricultural nation of only two million, oppressed during seven centuries. In the war (1914-18) Latvians suffered greatly from German and Russian armies ; but now Latvia is independent and can develop her musical as well as other faculties without hindrance. The first-fruits of artistic music were popular tunes harmonised for four-part singing. The first harmoniser of Latvian songs, Janis Cimze (1814-81), altered the characteristic qualities of popular tunes by putting them into the modern major and minor keys. More national are tho songs harmonised by E. Vigners (b. 1850), A. Jurjans and E . Melngailis (b. 1871). The first original compositions were written by K. Baumanis (1835-1905), author of the nationalhymn, 'God Blessour Latvia ' ; but the most important composers are J. Vitols and A. Kalnins. For foreigners the most interesting are the works of Kalnins (b. 1879), as having true national colouring. Tho compositions of J. Vitols (b. 1863) are refined, but not specially characteristic of the country. J. Vitols excels in nearly all branches of mus ic; his orchestral works are brilliant; e.g. his overture ' Spriditis ,' his suite of popular songs, etc. In piano music Vitols until now was the only composer whose works require virtuosity from the performer. A. Kalnins has written for the piano and organ, but much more for voice and for orchestra, and the first more important national opera ' Banuta.' His orchestral works have true national content and expression; for instance, ' Latvia,' ' Pie Staburaga,' ' The Song of the Native Country,' etc. Among A. Jurjans's works are interesting popular dances for orchestra: 'Ackups,' 'Jandalins,'and 'Beggar's Dance.' Among the younger composers the most remarkable is Janis Medins (b. 1890), author of two operas and many other works. The other Latvian composers, who have written mostly vocal music, are N. Alunans, E. Darzins, D. Milits, L. Betins (pianist), J. Straume, P. Jurjans, J. Jurjans, A. Ore, H. Ore, J. Zalits, A. Abels, P. Suberts, B. Valle, J. Reinholds, J. Graubins, M. Gubene, J. Kade, 0 . Kaulins, J. Ozols, 0 . Sepskis, K. Zigmunds, J. Sprogis, etc. The most important stimulants to the development of Latvian music are now the Latvian National Opera (director, T. Reiters), the Latvian Conservatory (Riga), and several Popular Conservatoires in the other towns. The Latvian Opera Company was founded in 1912 by P. Jurjans as a private enterprise; its further development was checked by the war. Only after the proclamation of independent Latvia (1918) could the opera renew its activity as the Latvian National Opera, with a government subsidy. As the highest music school there is now the Latvian (State) Conservatoire, toire, and first violin at the Musical Society, with great liberty of action. But Russia did not agree with him, and the state of his health compelled him in 1874 to take the baths at Carlsbad. Laub was certainly one of the greatest violinvirtuosi of his time. Ho had a fine and very powerful tone and a brilliant technique, and played with much feeling and passion. His repertory was very large, comprising all the important classical works and a great many modem compositions. His frequent performances of Joachim's Hungarian concerto deserve special mention. He had also much success as a quartet player, but his style, especially in latter years, was not un j ustly reproached with mannerism and a tendency to exaggeration. p. D.
(1) The chief of the first violins is in England called the leader of the orchestra, the Konzertmeister of the Germans, and chef d'attaque of the French. He is close to the conductor's left hand. The position is a most important one, as the animation and ' attack ' of the band depend in great measure on the leader. The great precision and force of the Gewandhaus orchestra, for instance, is said to have been mainly due to David being for so long at the head of them. I t is the leader's duty to play any passages for solo violin that may occur in works other than violin concertos; and in a See a le tte r signed a a . c. in Mus. T ., Apr. 1878. p. orchestras that are not organised institutions the leader often makes the engagement with the individual members. o. (2) In America the conductor (Fr. chef d'orchestre, Ger. Dirigent) is generally spoken of as t h e ' Leader.' C.
in Saxony, has for some centuries been one of the foremost musical towns in the world, and owes its high position to several causes, chief of which are : ( 1) the T homas schule , with its famous choir and 1 He was evidently dead in 1617, as his name does n o t occur in th e lis t of wages due to th e Gentlemen Pensioners a t th e beginning of th a t year. (b.M. Add. MSS. 34,1*22 B.) a. h .-h. 2 Th. Lupo, spelt backwards. b. h . r . its long list of distinguished cantors, amongst whom John Sebastian Bach, who reigned from 1723-50, stands out pre-eminent; (2) the G e w a n d h a u s C o n c e r t s , with a glorious history of nearly 200 years ; (3) the C o n s e r v a t o r i u m , founded in 1S43 through the instrumentality of Mendelssohn, who was its first chief ; (4) the presence of several great music publishing houses, w ith B r e i t k o p f & H a r t e l (q.v.) at the head of the list. (1) The T h o m a s s c h u l e , or School of St. Thomas, is a public school of ancient foundation consisting of several hundred boys from the ages of 10 to 19, of whom about 60 are musical * scholars ' and receive a free education. These scholars, or ' alumni ' as they are called, in addition to their ordinary school - work, are given a thorough musical education under the direction of the cantor and form the choir. They furnish the music at both the Thomaskirclie and the Nikolaikirche; and a t one or other of these churches on Sunday mornings, either immediately before or in the course of the service, they perform with the assistance of a portion of tho Gewandhaus Orchestra a cantata, nearly always one of Bach's. On Saturdays at 1.30 in the Thomaskirche it has long been tho practico for the choir to sing unaccompanied motets, which are preceded by some big organ - work-- generally by Bach, but also by other of the great organ-writers ancient and modern. The motets embrace music of all periods, from the earliest Netherland and Italian writers down to contemporary composers. For example, Vaughan Williams's unaccompanied Mass in G minor was given in this way more than once in the winter of 1923 with great effect. I t has in recent years become the custom to have a * Hauptprobe ' on Friday evenings at 6, with the addition of a short service of about ten minutes inserted between the organ-playing and the motets, and the Friday Hauptprobe has tended to outdo in importance the actual Saturday performance, owing no doubt to the more convenient hour at which it takes place. The large church is always crowded with listeners of all classes and ages, some 3000 people in all, many of them standing in the aisles. I t is impossible to exaggerate the influence of these evenings on the musical education of the Leipzig inhabitants, numbers of whom never miss a performance for years together. The choir is remarkable for the precision of its singing and the accuracy of its intonation : nothing is too hard for the singers. The quality of the tenors and basses naturally lacks richness and mellowness owing to the youth of the singers, but the general effect, helped by the superb acoustic qualities of the church, is extremely impressive. There are many distinguished names 1 in the 1 F o r a full lis t Bee Riemann. long succession of cantors. Johann Urban, appointed in 1439, was the first holder of the office, and Sethus Calvisius (1594-1615), Johann Hermann Schein (1615-30) and Johann Kuhnau (1701-22) are some of the most famous of Bach's predecessors. The present cantor is Karl S t r a u b e (q.v.), appointed in 1918, formerly organist at the Thomaskirche. In this latter office he was succeeded by his brilliant young pupil, Gunther Ramin, whose powers and virtuosity are scarcely inferior to his master's. The organ in the Thomaskirche is a specially fine one, and the magnificent organ-playing of these two men has for many years been one of the leading features of Leipzig musical life. (2) The G e w a n d h a u s C o n c e r t s are so called from their having been held in the hall of the Gewandhaus, the ancient market-hall of the Saxon linen-merchants of Leipzig. They date from the time when Bach was cantor of the Thomasschule, and the original title was ' das grosse Concert.' The first performance was held in a private house in 1743 ; the conductor was Doles, afterwards cantor of the Thomasschule (1756-89), and the orchestra consisted of 16 performers. They were interrupted by the Seven Years' War, but resumed on its termination in 1763, under the direction of J. A. Hiller, who conducted them at his own risk, and gave them the title of ' Liebhaberconcerte.' The orchestra was increased to 30, and regular performances were held down to Easter 1778. After a pause of three years the concerts were resumed, and located in the Gewandhaus, to which a hall for balls and concerts had lately been added. The credit for this change is due to Biirgermeister Karl Wilhelm Miiller, who has a right to be considered as the founder of the institution in its present form. He and eleven of his friends constituted themselves a board of directors, appointed J. A. Hiller as conductor, and opened a subscription list for 24 concerts. The first concert in the new rooms took place on Sept. 29, 1781 ; the first regular subscription concert on Nov. 25. In process of time the old Gewandhaus became too small and inconvenient for modern conditions, and in 1884 a magnificent new building was opened, containing a large hall for the orchestral concerts and a smaller one for chamber music, both of which possess admirable acoustic properties. At the present day some 20 orchestral concerts, generally with a vocal or instrumental soloist, take place weekly on Thursdays between the middle of October and Easter ; and there are usually two or three choral concerts, in which the Gewandhauschor, an excellent voluntary choir, take part. The regular conductor of the concerts (since 1922) is Wilhelm F u r t w a n g l e r (q.v.), while Karl Straube, conductor of the Gewandhauschor, directs the choral concerts. The orchestra is a magnificent one, the strings being especially brilliant. Mendelssohn was the conductor from 1835-43, and was succeeded by Ferdinand Hiller (1843-44). Since then Niels Gade (1844-4"), Julius Rietz (1848-00), Karl Reinecke (1860-95) and Arthur Nikisch (1895-1922) have been successively in charge. The most brilliant periods in the past have undoubtedly been those under Mendelssohn and Nikisch ; but Furtwangler has already shown that there is little likelihood of any falling away from his predecessor's high standard. For some time past it has been the custom to have a public ' Hauptprobe ' of the concerts on tho Thursday morning (in the case of big choral works on the previous evening). This Hauptprobe is to all intents and purposes a duplicate of the actual concert, for all the necessary rehearsing has been finished beforehand. In addition to the orchestral concerts, there have been (since 1809) 8 chamber-music evenings in the course of the winter, in which the leading part is borne by the Gewandhaus Quartet, consisting (1925) of Edgar Wollgandt, Karl Wolschke, Carl Herrmann and Julius Klengel. For the centenary celebrations of the concerts in 1881, a history of the institution was written by A. Dorffel. B ib l . - E. K r e s i i k e 's Die lSOjahrige Geschichte der Leipziger Geicandhauskonzerte, 1743-1893. (1893.) (3) Conservatorium. The foundation of the Conservatorium was entirely due to Felix Mendelssohn. I t was opened on Apr. 3, 1843, with a brilliant staff of teachers. Mendelssohn himself was the first head, and gave lessons in piano-playing and composition, in both of which subjects he had the co-operation of Robert Schumann. The chief violin - teacher was Ferdinand David, leader of the Gewandhaus Orchestra and one of Joachim's masters. The business and financial management was placed, then as now, in the hands of a committee of leading Leipzig citizens, while the purely musical side was administered by the chief I members of the teaching staff. If the Con- I servatorium cannot boast to-day of quite the same renown as it possessed in those early radiant days, when it was first and alone in the field, that is explained by the subsequent springing up of similar institutions all over Germany. But it has succeeded in maintaining a very high standard of efficiency, particularly perhaps on the theoretical side and in composition, and need not fear comparison with its competitors. At the present day there are between five and six hundred students of many nationalities. The head of the institution is Professor Max P / .u e r (q.v.), who succeeded Stephan Krehl in 1924, and prominent amongst the many excellent teachers are Karl Straube and Gunther Ramin (organ), Robert Teichmiiller and, of course, Pauer himself (piano), Julius Klengel (v'cl.), Walther Davisson (violin), Hermann Grabner and Sigfrid Karg- Elert (composition) and Frau Hedmondt (singing). The students' orchestra gives, in the Conservatorium Hall, from 8 to 10 concerts every year, and there are about twice as many student chamber-concerts, all of them open to the public. Professor Pauer has also instituted a series of ' Hausmusik ' evenings, when he, either alone or assisted by other members of the staff, plays to the students. (4) Op er a has seldom taken a very prominent position in the musical life of Leipzig. I t has had one or two brief periods of brilliance ; but Leipzig has always been handicapped by lack of funds and by the possession of too small a theatre. Until it possesses a larger stage it will be impossible for it to compete with such places as Berlin, Dresden or Munich, at all events in the performance of such works as the 'Meistersinger,' 'Gotterdammerung,' etc. But under its present able chief, Gustav Brecher, it has recently made great strides, and very good performances are to be heard, especially of the less exacting works. The body of singers is thoroughly competent, and the orchestra, being the Gewandhaus Orchestra, could scarcely be better. (5) A m o n g s t o th e r m u s ic a l in s t i tu t io n s sh o u ld bo m e n t io n e d th e R ie d e l -v e r e in , a ch o ra l so c ie ty fo u n d e d in 1854 a n d n am e d a f te r i t s f i r s t c o n d u c to r , Car l R ie d e l . I t give s a scr ies of e x c e l le n t c o n c e r t s e v e r y y e a r , a n d , in p a r t ic u la r , h a s d o n e a g r e a t w o rk in p o p u la r is ing b y a n n u a l p e r fo rm a n c e B a c h 's B m in o r Mass. T h e L e ipz ig S ympho ny Or chestra, th o u g h n o t in th e s am e class a s th e G ew a n d h a u s O rc h e s t r a , giv e s c a p i ta l c o n c e r ts , a n d , a f t e r go in g th ro u g h b a d t im e s d u r in g th e in f lat io n pe r io d , is n ow (1926) well o n th e u pw a r d g rad e . F in a l ly , a s t r ik in g fe a tu r e of m u s ic a l life in Le ipz ig- a s in d e e d in m a n y o th e r G e rm a n tow n s-is th e v e ry la rg e n um b e r of a dm i ra b le ma le c h o ra l socie tie s- m a n y of th em composed e n t i re ly of w o rk in g -m en . I n n e a r ly e v e ry case th e s t a n d a r d of p e r fo rm a n c e is e x t ra o rd in a r i ly high, b o th in q u a l i ty o f to n e a n d o n th e p u re ly m u s ic a l side. h . b.
(b. Lancut, Austrian Poland, June 22, 1830; d. Dresden, Nov. 14, 1915), a distinguished pianist, whose fame, however, rested more on his teaching than on personal performance. He attracted notice in Vienna by his pianoforte-playing in 1845. He was at St. Petersburg (1852-78) as a professor a t the Conservatorium, then settled in Vienna, where he developed his own school of piano-playing, and was responsible for the training of a large number of distinguished pianists, including Paderewski. While at St. Petersburg he married Mile. Friedeburg, a concert singer. His three subsequent marriages were with pupils, namely, Annette E s s ip o f f (q.v.) (1880-92), Donimirska Benislavska (1894-1908), Marie Gabriele Rozborska (1908). The last-named made her appearance in London as Mme. Leschetizky in the year of her marriage. Leschetizky's compositions chiefly consist of morceaux de salon for the piano, but an opera, ' Die erste Falte,' was given with success at Prague in 1867, at Wiesbaden in 1881, and elsewhere. He made his debut in England at the Musical Union concerts in 1864, playing in the Schumann Quintet, and solos of his own composition, and later frequently appeared at the same concerts. An account of his method was published as Die Grundlage des Methods Leschetizky by Malwine Bree in 1902. The following books shed further light on the principles of his teaching and the qualities of his personality : M a r i e TTn s c h u l d v o n Me l a s f e l d : Die Hand des Pianisten. (1901.) 4 A n g e la P o to o jla ; Th. Leschetizky. (Translated in to English from th e French by Geneviive Seymonr Lincoln. (New York, 1903.) AJfNBTTB HtrtXAH: T h. Leschetizky. L iv ing Master! o f Music. (London, 190G.) E t h e l N ew c o m b : Lesehetizky as I knew him. (New York and London, i92i.> . addns. C.
(b. Pressburg, May 10, 1780 ; d. Milan, Aug. 18, 1853), Doctor of Medicine, composer and writer on music. He studied medicine in Vienna, where he wrote several books on music and musical subjects, and settled at Milan, producing there in 1826 his important Dizionario e biografia della musica, which was followed by several other theoretical, a'sthetical and biographical works. He composed 3 operas, 4 ballets, chamber music, pianoforte pieces, church music, songs, etc. (See Q.-L.)
(b. Rotherham, Mar. 4, 1776; d. London, June 13, 1855), showed so early a predilection for music that when he was about 5 years of age his father, an amateur performer, began teaching him the violin, and at 9 years of age, the violoncello also. He continued to practise the latter until he was 16, when Cervetto, hearing him play, encouraged him and undertook hia gratuitous instruction. He quitted Yorkshire and obtained an engagement at the Brighton theatre. In 1794 he succeeded Sperati as principal violoncello at the Opera and all the principal concerts, and retained undisputed possession of that position until his retirement in 1851. His intimacy w ith D ragonet ti (q.v.) lasted for half a century. He was appointed professor of his instrument in the R.A.M. on its foundation in 1822.1 Lindley's tone was remarkable for its purity, richness, mellowness and volume, and in this respect he has probably never been equalled. His technique, for that date, was remarkable, and his accompaniment of recitative was perfection. He composed several concertos and other works for his instrument, but his composition was by no means equal to his execution. His daughter married John Barnett the composer. His son, (2) W il l iam (b. 1802 ; d. Manchester, Aug. 12, 1869), was also a violoncellist. He was a pupil of his father, first appeared in public in 1817, and soon took a position in all the best orchestras. He gave great promise of future excellence, but was unable to achieve any prominence owing to extreme nervousness. w. H. H.
(b. 1540 ; d. 1643), Portuguese church composer. He studied a t Evora under Manuel Mendes (q.v.), and then became choir-master there, perhaps in succession to his teacher, who died in 1605, or more likely under him. He moved to Lisbon, and held an appointment at the Royal Hospital, being transferred to the Cathedral before 1594. Many of his works were printed by Plantin, at Antwerp, and letters are preserved from the composer to the printer. He lived to the age of 103. His style has been compared with that of Benevoli, but without justice. Lobo never employed so many voices or so many different groups as Benev o li; his style has more in common with the later manner of Victoria (in the ed. of 1600) but is without Victoria's imagination.