A kademische s I n s t i - tu t f o r see B e r l in .
(b. Klatovy, 1855), Czech composer, attended the Organ School as a pupil of Skuhersky and began his musical life as an organist. From 1876-81 he acted as assistant conductor at the Czech th e a tr e ; choirmaster of the choral society Hlahol from 1890-97 ; professor of organ in the masterschool of the Prague Conservatoire since 1920. He has composed much music for choir and organ: the cantatas, ' The burial on the Kank '; 'The coming of the Czechs to the Rip-hill' ; A Ballad of Czech music, ' Blanik ' ; some choral works of a humorous character-' The Goodman of the Mill,' ' The Gnat, ' The Thistle,' etc. ; masses, concert-fantasias for organ (his ' Fantasia on the Choral, St. Wenceslaus ' and 'Legend' are published in the 'Maitres contemporains d'orgue,' Paris); an organ sonata in F sharp minor; some chamber music. R. N.
(b. Zwickau, Saxony, f ir s t half of 16th century; d. July 1565). His fir s t appointment was at Altenburg, whence in 1563 he was called to be Kapellmeister at Giistrow in Mecklenburg. The town council of Zwickau afterwards called him back to his native town, giving him the post of cantor a t St. Marien, the principal church. His one published work consists of Ten Psalms with German words for four to six voices, composed throughout in several divisions (' Zehen Psalme Davids des Propheten mit vier, funf und sechs Stimmen gesetzt durch David Koler von Zwickau,' Leipzig, 1554). The only known copy of this work is preserved in the public library at Zwickau. Otto Kade has the merit of first calling attention to this work, and rescuing its able composer from utter oblivion. Since then Dr. Georg Gohler of Leipzig has reprinted two of the Psalms, and conducted performances of them at Zwickau and elsewhere. In his preface to Psalm III. Dr. Gohler says : 1 I t may be considered a s one of th e mo s t per fec t pieces of c o n t rap u n ta l a r t an d genial in te rp re ta t io n of the te x t which we anywhere possess. . . . The realism of the musical drawing is as as tonishing as the quite modern conception an d pre senta tion of th e different p a r ts of th e te x t . ' In the Beilagen zu Ambros Kade printed from a MS. Kriler's four-voice setting of the Geistliches Lied, ' 0 du edler Brunn der Freuden,' which is also an excellent piece of work. Among the few other works of Koler in MS. there is a Mass for seven voices on Josquin's Motet ' Benedicta es coelorum regina.' J . K. M.
(b. Buttelstadt, Thuringia, Feb. 10, 1713; d. Alten. burg, Jan.1 1780), distinguished organist. His father, J o h a n n T o b i a s (b. Heichelheim, 1690 ; d. Buttelstadt, after 1728), himself an excellent organist, for seven years walked every week from Buttelstadt to Weimar, in order to take lessons from Walther, author of the Lexicon, who was organist there, and from Sebastian Bach, at that time Konzertmeister at Weimar. He was appointed organist at Buttelstadt about 1721. He so thoroughly grounded his son in music that when in 1726 the latter went to the Thomasschule in Leipzig he was already sufficiently advanced to be at once admitted by Bach into the number of his special pupils. He enjoyed Bach's instruction for nine years (to 1735), and rose to so high a place in his esteem that he was appointed to play the clavier at the weekly practices to which Bach gave the name of ' collegium musicum.' Punning upon his pupil's name and his own, the old cantor was accustomed to say that ' he was the best crab (Krebs) in all the brook (Bach).' At the close of his philosophical studies at Leipzig he was appointed organist successively at Zwickau (1737), Zeitz (1744), and Altenburg, where he remained from 1756 till his death. He was equally esteemed on the clavier and the organ, and in the latter capacity especially deserves to be considered one of Bach's best pupils. His published compositions include ' Klavier-Uebungen ' (4 parts), containing Chorals with variations, fugues and su i t e s ; sonatas for clavier, and for flute and c la v ie r ; and trios for the flute. (See Q.-L.) Several of these have been reprinted in the collections of Korner and others. Among his unpublished works a Magnificat and two settings of the Sanctus with orchestral accompaniments are highly spoken of. He left two sons, both sound musicians and composers, though not of the eminence of their father. The eldest, (2) E h r e n f r i e d C h r i s t i a n T r a u o o t t , succeeded his father as court organist and Musik-director at Altenburg, and on his death was succeeded by his younger brother, (3) J o h a n n G o t t f r i e d , who wrote cantatas, songs, etc. a . m.
(d. 1542), said to have been bom at Augsburg, was in 1519 trumpeter at Innsbruck in the service of the Emperor Maximilian, and afterwards as first trumpetmajor and then Kapellmeister at Konigsberg in the service of Duke A(bert of Brandenburg and Prussia. In 1540 he brought out a harmonised Gesangbuch for liturgical use in the Lutheran Church, one of the earliest of the kind after Johann Walther's book of 1524. Its title is : ' Concentus novi trium vocuiu ecclesiarum uaul in Prussia praecipue accomodati . . . News Gesang mit dreyen Stimmen dem Kirchen und Schulen zu nu tz . . . auch etlicbe StGck m i t 8, 6, 5, 4 Stim. hinzugethan * . . . (Augsburg, 1540). I t contains thirty-nine pieces, eight of them with Latin texts, including a Missa and Magnificat, mostly for three voices, thirty of them being the composition of Kugelmann himself. Towards the end there are a few more elaborate pieces. A complete Psalm by Stoltzer for five voices, another by Hans Heugel for six voices, etc. Kugelmann's book is the first source for the Choral - tunes, 1 Nun lob mein' Seel' den Herrn ' (of which there are three settings, a 3, a 5 and a 8), and 1 Allein Gott in der Hoh',' this latter, however, being based on a Plainsong Gloria in Excelsis. Winterfeld, in his Evangelische Kirchenmusik, gives three of Kugelmann's pieces. J . R. M.
(b. Sumterville, South Carolina, July 12, 1842; d. New Hartford, Connecticut, May 13, 1916), opera singer. She was of northern extraction. Her mother had considerable talent as a musician, and Clara was her only child. In 1856 they removed to New York, where she received the whole of her musical education. She made her first appearance there, at the Academy of Music (Opera), as Gilda in 1 Rigoletto,' in 1861, and sang that season ten or twelve times. On Nov. 2, 1867, she made her debut in London a t Her Majesty's as Margherita, and sang also as Violetta, Linda, Martha and Zerlina ( ' Don Giovanni '), appearing in the last-named part on the night before the theatre was burnt down, Dec. 6. In 1868 she sang, with the company of Her Majesty's Theatre, at Drury Lane, and at various important concerts in the same season, and at the Handel Festival. From 1868-72 she was touring in the United States. On May 11, 1872, she reappeared in London at Drurv Lane, Her Majesty's Opera, as Linda, and sang during that season also in ' Lucia,' and other parts. On her return to the United States she continued to sing in Italian opera till 1874, when she organised an English troupe, herself superintending the translation of the words, the mise en seine, the training of the singers, and the rehearsals of the chorus. Such was her devotion to the project, that in the winter of 1874- 1875 she sang no fewer than 125 nights. She reappeared at the rebuilt Her Majesty's Theatre in 1879 as Aida, and Philine in ' Mignon.' In 1881 she returned to America, singing principally in concerts. She married her manager, Carl Strakosch, in 1887, and soon afterwards retired. Her musical gifts were great. She is said to have been familiar with forty operas. She had great conscientiousness as an artist, ardent enthusiasm, and a voice of great compass and purity. o. and A. c. B i b l .-Memoirs of an American Prima Donna, New York, 1913.
(b. Mosbach (or Mosach), Bavaria ; d. Nov. 1675), beneficiary of St. Peter's, Munich ; a prolific composer of sacred songs, some of which have appeared in modern editions (Q.-L.).
(b . London, 1775; d. there, Feb. 27, 1827), M.D. (Glasgow), an accomplished amateur musician, the son of a coal merchant, from whom he inherited an ample fortune, was educated at Eton. He composed an operetta entitled ' Love among the Roses, or, The Master K ey,' and was author of Observations on Vocal Music, 1821, and editor of ' The Loyal and National Songs of England,' 1823 ; ' The Sea Songs of England,' 1823; ' The Sea Songs of Charles Dibdin,' 1824 ; and ' A Collection of the Vocal Music in 1 Examples were Nos. 61A and 66 o f th e Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Ins truments , South Kensington Mus., 1872, t Murray's Diet, Shakspere's Plays.' He was also author of some eccentrically written but useful books, including The Cook's Oracle (1817), The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life (1822), The Housekeeper's Ledger (1825), The Economy of the Eyes (1824), The Traveller's Oracle (1827). (The titles of other books are given in the D .N.B.) In his fine musical library was the MS. collection of airs containing the supposed original of ' God save the King,' which, coming after Kitchiner's death into the possession of Richard Clark, was tampered with and has now totally disappeared. w. h . h . ; addns. F. K.
(1) Thomas, organist and vicar choral of Salisbury Cathedral, 1535-40 or 45. He received an annuity out of the dissolved monastery of Spalding, 1545-47. I t is as y e t impossible to decide in most cases which of the compositions merely signed Knight (or Knyghte, etc.) belong to this or the following composer. The beautiful Magnificat arranged for Novello's Parish Choir Book, No. 898, byRoyle Shore, is undoubtedly by Thomas, and probably also the Mass in the Peterhouse MS. (c. 1 5 3 0 -4 0 ), and Evening Canticles in John Day's ' Certaine Notes ' (1 5 6 0 -6 5 ) , which contains also the above Magnificat. Of the Mass and two motets (b.M. Add. MSS. 17,802-05) or the motet in Sadler's part books (Bodl. Lib.) it is so far impossible to say whether they are by Thomas or by (2) R o b e r t , who was a contemporary of the former, though he may have reached farther into the century, and author of the fivepart motet, ' Propterea maestum ' at Peterhouse (W. H. Grattan Flood in Mus. T. vol. lxii. p. 331; Q.-L.). E. v. d. s.
(b. Oct. 8, 1820), pianist and pupil of Antoine, lived at S t . Petersburg and in Paris. (4) A p o l l i n a i r e (b. Warsaw, Oct. 23, 1825; d. there, June 29, 1879) was a violinist. His first master was his elder brother Charles (1). He showed the same precocity of talent as the rest of his family, performing in public concerts at an age of not much over 4 years. Later on he travelled a great deal, chiefly in Russia, but also in France and Germany, and made a certain sensation by his really exceptional technical proficiency, not unaccompanied by a certain amount of charlatanism. In 1837 he is said 1 to have attracted the attention of Paganini in Paris, and to have formed a friendship with the great virtuoso which resulted in his receiving some lessons 2 from him (an honour which he shared with Sivori) and ultimately becoming heir to his violins and violin compositions. This, however, requires confirmation. He made tours in France and Germany in 1847, and in 1853 was appointed solo-violinist to the Emperor of Russia, and in 1861 director of the Warsaw Conservatoire. He played a solo at one of the Russian concerts given in connection with the Exhibition at Paris in 1878. His compositions (fantasias and the like) are musically unimportant. (5) E u g e n i e , sister of the above, was a competent pianist, who performed with Stanislas and Apollinaire (Riemann). p. D.