(d. circa 1633), a prolific composer and skilled musician, flourished at Venice about 1604, and ' O u am m . S c h r i fu n , 111. 278. elsewhere in Italy. He attained great skill on instruments of the lute family, and among his publications were three books of ' Intabolatura di ohitarrone ' (1604, 1616, 1626); four of ' Villanelle ' for voices, with chitarrone accompaniment (1610, 1619, 1619, 1623); besides motets, arias, a wedding chorus (1627), and an Apotheosis of Ignatius Loyola (1622). He is mentioned with great eulogium by Kircher (Mxisurgia). He seems to have died about 1633, as no work of his of later date is known. (For list see Q.-L. ; also Ambros, Oesch. d. Mus. vol. iv. p. 126.)
an 18th-century monk of the Praemonstratenses at Marchthal, where he was also Kapellmeister. He was a composer of masses, psalms, and other church music, as well as 3 suites (Parthiae), op. 4, for harpsichord, mostly published at Augsburg between 1743-54. e . v. d. s.
(b. Vienna, Jan. 22,1 8 1 0 ; d. Apr. 28, 1873), Dr. juris., philologist, and historian; clerk (1841) and custos (1854) in the court library, appointed vice-president (1851), and president (1859) of the Akademie der Wissenschaften ; received the order of Leopold in 1870. His philological works are numerous and important; but his title to admission here is his pamphlet, J . Haydn in London, 1791 und 1792 (Vienna, Gerold, 1861). In addition to matter from the well-known pamphlets of Dies and Griesinger, it contains a number of Haydn's letters, chiefly from London and Estoras, to his friend Maria Anna von Genzinger, the wife of Leopold Peter, Edler von Genzinger, an esteemed physician, with four from the lady herself. She played the piano well and even composed. Haydn wrote several sonatas for her, and whenever he was in Vienna spent much of his time at her house, where a pleasant musical society was generally to be found. Karajan also furnished his friend Otto Jahn with valuable material for his book on Mozart. c . F. P.
th e S usanna, of Hamburg, the first woman to sing as soloist in a Hamburg church choir, on Sept. 17, 1716, when Mattheson led her personally to the choir. She was also an excellent oratorio and operatic singer between 1716 and 1746, and between 1729 and 1733 undertook, with great success, the management of the opera, which she rescued from a critical condition. She appeared also at various times at Copenhagen opera. Her husband, J o hann (d. 1729), was conductor of the band of the Hamburg council, and instituted oratorio performances with the assistance of his wife. E. v. d. s.
(b. Dresden, May 6, 1 8 1 9 ; d. Doberan, near Rostock, July 19, 1900), writer on music, showed a decided predilection for music while still a pupil at the Kreuzschule. He received lessons in harmony and counterpoint from Julius Otto and Moritz Hauptmann, and in pianoforte and organ-playing from J. G. Schneider. In 1846 he made a prolonged stay in Italy for the purpose of musical study, especially of the older vocal music. On his return he founded and conducted a Caecilien-Verein or mixed choir for the performance of older vocal works. In 1860 he received the first prize from the Maatschappij tot bevordering der Toonkunst in Amsterdam (Society for the Furtherance of Music) for his valuable monograph on ' Mattheus le Maistre,' a former Kapellmeister to the court of Saxony. In the same year he accepted the invitation from the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Friedrich Franz II., to be musical director of the Schloss-kapelle at Schwerin. The Schloss-chor, which was organised on similar principles to the Berlin Domchor, was brought by Kade to a high pitch of artistic refinement. During the same time he was entrusted with the musical editorship of the Cantionale fu r die evangelisch-lutherischen Kirchen im Orossherzogtum Mecklenburg-Schwerin, which appeared in parts from 1868-87. Along with this Cantional he also published a ' Chora(buch ' for four voices, harmonised on the strict diatonic system of the lfith century. The first edition of this ' Chora(buch ' appeared in 1869, a second in 1886. It appears to have been Kade who gave the first impulse to the foundation by Eitner of the Gesellschaft fur Musikforschune, which led to the publication of the Monatshefte fu r Musikgeschichte from 1869. Kade edited for the Gesellschaft Johann Walther's Wittenbergisch geistlich Oesanbuch of 1524, and was joint-editor with Eitner and Erk of Ott's Liederbuch of 1544. In 1862 Kade had been commissioned by the firm of Leuckart, the publishers of Ambros's Geschichte der Musik, to edit a supplementary volume, containing specimens of the most celebrated masters of the 15th and 16th centuries. This volume only appeared in 1882, but represents the fruits of many years' research in the various libraries of Italy and Germany. In 1892 he published a volume entitled Die alteren Passionskom'positionen bis zum Jahre 1631 (Giitersloh, 1892), which gives an account of the various compositions of the Passion in the 16th century, and gives the actual notes of the Obrecht, Walther and Scandelli Passions. As part of his official work at Schwerin he published, in 1896, a Catalogue of the Grand-Ducal Musical Collection. Other works of Kade are Der neu-aufgefundene Luther- Codex (with facsimiles), 1871, and Die deutsche vol. m weltliche Liedweise, 1872. He retired from active service in 1893. List of the pieces contained in Kade's supplementary volume to Ambros's Oeschichte der Musik (2) R e in h a rd (b. Dresden, Sept. 25, 1859), son of the above, became professor of the Royal Gymnasium at Dresden and compiled the catalogue of the musical collection in the Royal Library (1890). He contributed the results of his researches to the publications of the Int. Mus. Ges. (Riemann).
(b. Pilsen, now Plzen, Czechoslovakia, Nov. 1880), composer and teacher. Karel attended the Gymnasium, first in Plzen and then in Prague, and later studied law in the Prague University. These studies, however, were not congenial to him, and finally, against his father's wish, he entered the Prague Conservatoire, where he became a pupil of J. Klifka (organ) and Antonin D v o r a k (composition). On completing his course, in 1904, he devoted himself exclusively to composition. For ten years he lived quietly in Prague, until the summer of 1914. He was then taking a holiday in Russia, where, on the outbreak of war, he was interned as an Austrian subject. After a few months, he was sent to teach in the State Music School at Taganrog, and two years later was appointed professor in the Conservatoire a t Rostov-on-Don. When, in the autumn of 1917, the Bolshevist upheaval took place, Karel was forced to fly to Irkutsk, in Siberia. But even there he was pursued, and only rescued by the Czechoslovak Legionaries, whose ranks he joined. Finally he was appointed conductor of the Symphony Orchestra of the Legion, in which capacity he eventually succeeded in getting home. He is now on the teaching staff of the Prague Conservatoire. Karel is chiefly an instrumental composer ; a typical * absolute ' musician, even when he occasionally adopts a programme for his works (see below). In this respect he is a true pupil of Dvorak, in fact, his only successor among the Czech composers. Karel started with a thorough study of Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Dvorak and Brahms, and afterwards found his own personal and modern idiom wherewith to fill the mould of classical instrumental forms. Thence his relationship to Bruckner, with whom he shares the tendency to breadth of structure, and also to Reger, and, in his later period, to Hindemith, and others. Like the Russians he usually employs in his works the old church tonalities. His instrumental music is epic rather than ly r ica l; it is not impressionistic ; it lacks the softer qualities and is pervaded by a certain austerity. At the same time, much passion is often concealed within its broad themes. Karel's adagios are remarkable for their depth and are generally the strongest of his movements. In his scherzos, the humour is rather biting than careless, and Slavonic rhythms may be clearly heard. His themes are broad, his harmony rich ; and the whole plan of modulation constructed upon the apparently simple relations of keys, combined at the same time with the allied church tonalities, a method which gives rise to new and interesting complications. His instrumentation avoids all affectations and is pithy, sane and real. In the ' Renaissance ' symphony (by which is meant the renaissance of classical music) he simplifies his orchestral resources so much, and strives for such a peculiarly transparent quality of tone, that he only uses a small orchestra (like Beethoven and Brahms he holds back the trombones for the last movement) in which, wherever possible, each instrument plays an independent part, and the tone of the full orchestra almost disappears. Hence the polyphonic tendency of Karel's work. A special feature of Karel's art is his remarkable capacity for the use of the variation form. When he introduces a theme, he continues to elaborate it, so that his work actually consists of a continuous development. For this reason he likes to combine sonata-form or rondo-form with variation-form. I t is characteristic of him that immediately after the composition of the Theme and Variations for piano, op. 13, he started to write a monothematic sonata (op. 14) in four movements on the same motive. Also his Capriccio for violin, op. 21, varies the same theme used in the preceding violin concerto, op. 20, which the composer calls a symphony for violin and orchestra. Besides these works, the symphonic epic, ' The Ideals,' the string quartet in E flat, and the pianoforte quartet in A minor, are all monothematic; on the other hand, Novak points out Karel's great power of thematic invention as shown in the ' Renaissance ' symphony and the violin sonata. Karel's programme music -- ' The Ideals,' ' Demon ' and ' The Awakening,' are not constructed on literary bases. They treat personal or universal problems, and merely originate from some definite idea, but their further structure is purely mus ical; therefore it is impossible to attach to them any detailed programme. He has also a very marked feeling for dramatic art. In his youth he made a diligent study of Wagner and Smetana. His only opera, ' Ilseina srdce ' (Ilsea's Heart), the libretto of which is taken from the modern artistic world of Bohemia, shows that the author possesses a powerful dramatic talent, with a special sense for stagecraft and scenic effect. Various external obstacles delayed the first production of this work for fifteen years after its composition. On this account, Karel has not up till now shown any wish to write a new work for the theatre. He has recently delighted his public with a song cycle of an epic character (op. 24).