a family of virtuosi, of which (1) C h a r l e s , the eldest (b. Warsaw, Sept. 6, 1815; d. Paris, Aug. 27, 1867), appeared as a pianist in public at the age of 7, but, like the majority of prodigies, did not fulfil the promises of childhood. He made his first studies in Warsaw, and continued them at Paris, where he settled as teacher. (2) A n t o i n e (b. Cracow, Oct. 27, 1817; d. Nowogrod, Lithuania, Dec. 7, 1899) was a clever pianist, a pupil of Field at Moscow. He possessed great delicacy of touch and brilliance of execution, but was a superficial musician. He composed many ' pieces de salon,' of which the ' Reveil du lion ' (op. 115) became widely popular. He lived in Paris till 1851, then in Berlin till 1853, in St. Petersburg till 1867, when he settled in London, where an opera, ' Les Deux Distraits,' was given in 1872. He was in the United States in 1885, and later, and in 1896- 1898 made a professional tour round the world, ending at Warsaw.
(b. Ostritz, Saxony, Aug. 31, 1830; d. Dresden, Sept. 13, 1908), organist and dramatic composer His f a th e r , th e rector of th e school in Ostritz, gave KRESS him his early musical education. He studied composition under Julius Otto, and the organ under Johann Schneider at Dresden, where he became organist of the Catholic church in 1854, and to the court in 1863. He founded several ' Gesangvereine,' and in 1865 his composition, ' Die Geisterschlacht,' gained the prize at the first German ' Sangerfest,' in Dresden. Three years later he took another prize in Brussels for a Mass. His opera ' Die Folkunger,' in five acts, libretto by Mosenthal, was produced at Dresden, June 1875. I t was well received and had a considerable run, but has since disappeared; nor has 'Heinrich der Loewe,' to his own libretto (produced at Leipzig, 1877), met with more permanent favour, though it was given on many German stages with success. The music is correct, and shows both taste and talent, but no invention or dramatic power. His vocal part-writing has little life ; and his duets, terzets, finales, etc., are too much like part-songs. Another opera, ' Der Flfichtling,' was produced at Ulm in 1881, and ' Schon Rohtraut ' in Dresden, Nov. 1887. Three later masses, ' Pilgerfahrt,' ' Sieg im Gesang,' for chorus and orchestra, and ' Musikalische Dorfgeschichten,' for orchestra, may also be mentioned. F. G.
Three members of the family who bore this name, father, son and grandson, distinguished themselves as musicians of some consequence in their day. (1) J o h a n n P a u l K u n t z e n (b. Leisnig in Saxony, Aug. 30, 1696; d. Mar. 20, 1757), whose father was a cloth manufacturer at Leisnig. While still attending the University of Leipzig in 1716, he was engaged at the Leipzig Opera, both as singer and instrumental performer. In 1718 he became Kapellmeister at Zerbst, and in 1719 at Wittenberg, where he established regular concerts. In 1723 he was invited to Hamburg as opera composer. In 1732 he was appointed organist to the Marien- Kirche at Liibeck, which post he held till his death. At Liibeck he also established regular concerts which may be considered as a continuation of the Advent Abendmusiken of Buxtehude. Mattheson speaks highly of his compositions (opera, oratorio, etc.), none of which, however, appear ever to have been printed. (2) A d o l p h K a r l (surname generally spelt K u n z e n ), son of Johann Paul (b. Wittenberg, Sept. 22, 1720; d. 1781), early distinguished himself as a performer on the harpsichord and clavier generally, and made tours as a virtuoso, in the course of which he paid several visits to London. I t was in London that his op. 1 appeared, 12 sonatas for the harpsichord, dedicated to the Prince of Wales. In 1749 he was appointed Konzertmeister to the Duke of Mecklenburg- Schwerin, and in 1757 succeeded his father as organist at the Marien-Kirche, Liibeck, where he continued till his death. In his official capacity at Liibeck, as also previously in Schwerin, he produced a large number of Passions, oratorios and church cantatas (see Q.-L.) The library at Schwerin contains a large number of instrumental works by him (concertos, symphonies) and birthday serenatas for members of the ducal family. Besides the few for the harpsichord already mentioned, the only other works published by him are three collections of songs with accompaniment of figured bass only, 1748-56 (' Lieder zum unschuldigen Zeitvertreib '). (3) F r i e d r i c h L u d w ig A e m i l iu s (surname always spelt K u n z e n ), son of Adolph Karl (b. Liibeck, Sept. 24, 1761 ; d. 1817), received his early musical instruction from his father, who in 1768 brought him to London, where, along with his equally talented sister, he appeared as a juvenile prodigy, playing in a concerto for two claviers. In 1781 he attended the University at Kiel for the study of law. There he made the acquaintance of Professor K F. Cramer, a musical dilettante and writer, who encouraged him to devote himself to music. Giving up his legal studies in 1787, he obtained through Cramer's influence a minor post at the Copenhagen Opera, where in 1789 he produced his first Danish opera, ' Holger Danske ' (Oberon), which the same year was also published in a piano score edited by Cramer. Shortly afterwards he went to Berlin, where, in conjunction with Reichardt, he edited a musical journal. In 1792 he was musical director of the theatre at Frankfort, and in 1794 held a similar post at Prague. In 1795 he successfully produced his opera ' Das Fest der Winzer,' which also appeared in piano score. The same year he succeeded J. A. P. Schulz as director of the opera at Copenhagen, where he produced a large number of Danish operas. Most of these were published in piano score at Copenhagen. (For list see Q.-L.) J . R. m .
a famous German horn-player who went to Paris in 1782. He became 2nd horn at the Opera in 1783 ; joined the Guarde Nationale in 1791 ; was teacher at the Conservatoire from 1795-1802, and retired from opera with a pension in 1808. He composed horn duets, trios, etc. Fetis declared him one of the finest of all low horn players. e . v. d. s.
(b. Nuremberg, Mar. 29, 1 6 1 6 ;2 d. Apr. 14, 1655), Nuremberg organist. His chief work is entitled Harmonia organica in tabulaturam Oermanicam composita, etc., first published in 1645, 2 Riemann. and republished in 1665. I t is remarkable, as being one of the earliest specimens of German copper-plate engraving, and is also of importance in the history of organ-playing and organ composition. As the title indicates, the music is given in the old German tablature notation.1 The work opens with fourteen preludes mainly in the church tones, followed by fugal fantasias on Choral - tunes, and concludes with some Magnificat intonations and verses. The pedal is treated obbligato throughout. Ritter gives three examples from the work in modern notation. Kindermann's other works are partly sacred, partly secular compositions for voices with basso continuo and occasional viol and violin accompaniment. Selections from his works have been reprinted in D.D.T. (2nd series) xiii. and xxi. He also composed a large number of Choral-tunes, harmonised for three voices, to the Nuremberg preacher Dilherr's Evangelische Schlussreimen and Gottliche Liehesflamme, 1649-52. Some works for instruments only, partly viols, partly wind instruments, are also mentioned, but do not seem to exist complete. (See Eitner, Q.-L.) B i b l .-P e t e r E p s t e i n , A u s Frankfurter Ratsaktendei 1 7. Jatirhunderts. Z .M .W ., Apr. 1923, pp. 370-73.
(b. Mindelheim, Algau, July 3, 1772; d. ? Budapest, c. 1832). After studying at Memmingen, he joined the Munich orchestra, went to Vienna c. 1803, where he studied under A(brechtsberger, and arranged Beethoven's pianoforte sonatas for string quartet. He was for a time Kapellmeister at Briinn, and in 1809 was in the service of Count Brunswick at Budapest. He composed a Mass, 2 operas, 1 cantata, settings of some of Schiller's poems, quintet for wind instruments, clarinet trio, pianoforte concerto, violin and pianoforte sonatas, etc. (Thayer's Beethoven ; Mendel; Q.-L.).
(b. Stein, near Krems on the Danube, Jan. 14, 1800; d. Vienna, June 3, 1877), learned musician and naturalist, tutor to the sons of the Archduke Karl (1828-42). From 1850-63 he lived at Salzburg, and from the latter year to his death at Vienna. His work as a botanist and mineralogist does not concern us : as a musician he has immortalised his name by his Chronologisch-thematisches Verw'-hniss of all Mozart's works, with an appendix of lost, doubtful and spurious compositions (Breitkopf & H&rtel, Leipzig, 1862). As a precursor of that invaluable work, a small pamphlet should be named, t)ber den Umfang der musiJcalischen Productivity W. A. Mozarts (Salzburg, 1862). The complete edition of Mozart's works which Breitkopf & Hartel have published could scarcely have been made without his generous co-operation. In 1832 von Kochel was made an Imperial Councillor, and in 1842 he received the order of Leopold. Among his intimate friends was Otto Jahn, in whose work on Mozart he took an active interest. See Jahn's Mozarty second edition, p. xxxi. c. f . p .
and organist of the monastery of Weingarten, Wiirtemberg, between 1620-27. He was a prolific composer of masses, motets, other church music, and of songs. (List in Q - L . )
(b. Holasovice, in Bohemian Silesia, Jan. 9,1820; d. Brno, Moravia, 1885). His baptismal name in the secular world was Karel. He was the first Czech composer whose technical grasp of his art, combined with deep penetration into the Bpirit of the folk-songs, enabled him to weld the two elements in a satisfactory way. He was therefore the true precursor of Smetana in national music, as the more famous composer gladly acknowledged when he observed that it was not until he had heard Krizkovsky's choruses that he began to realise the full significance of the Czech and Moravian folk melody. Krizkovsky came of a family of poor but talented rural musicians who had suffered too many deprivations to wish that the boy should follow in their steps. He was forbidden to touch any musical instrument or even to speak about music. But once having heard High Mass in the Church of St. Mary at Opava, he escaped from home every Sunday and tramped the long distance between his village and the town. At first he only ventured to stand listening at the door leading into the choir, but as week after week went by he became familiar to the choristers, and one kind singer asked permission to bring him in and let him sit among the sopranos. Of course he was not intended to sing, but when the leading boy went astray in his solo, Krizkovsky took up the part and sang it correctly to the end, much to the astonishment of the choirmaster. After this he was admitted to the foundation of the choir school. Extreme poverty hindered his career after his voice broke, but he managed at last to take the degree of doctor of philosophy at Brno University. Here he entered the Augustinian community of St. Thomas in 1845, and on the completion of his novitiate became a professor in the Divinity school at the head of which was F. Susil, an assiduous collector of the Moravian folk tunes, who inculcated in the young monk a genuine love of the national music. Krizkovsky began to arrange some of the folk-songs for four-part male voice choir, and showed an aptitude for the work which delighted Susil. Brother Pavel was sent to Prague to study music for six months. The director of the music in the church of the community was Bohumir Rieger (1764-1855), who helped and encouraged Krizkovsky during his earlier years of study, and eventually resigned his post in favour of his pupil. Krizkovsky therefore had a sound training and some practical experience in composition before he took up his researches into the folk music. He entered deeply into its spirit and traditions, and the result was a series of stirring and beautiful male voice choruses. I t is regrettable perhaps that he wrote always for a male choir, but natural enough considering his monastic life. His chorus ' Utonula ' (The Drowned Girl), 1860, was received with enthusiasm in Prague, and like most of Kfizkovsky's subsequent works now forms part of the repertory of every choral society in Czechoslovakia. Unfortunately he was too modest to realise the value of his compositions, and lent the manuscripts to choral societies in all directions, with the result that much of his music is lost. Of what remains, the most popular partsongs a r e : ' Divfia ' (Lassie), tender, impassioned and charmingly harmonised ; ' Dar za lasku ' (The Love -gift); ' Prosba odvedenho ' (The Recruit's Prayer); ' 2aloba ' (The P la in t ) ; ' Zatofi se ' (Turn around), for solo quartet and chorus, the words from a folk-song; ' Zahrada Bozi ' (God's Garden); ' Modlitba Sv. Cyrilla na sotnach ' (Prayer of St. Cyril on his Deathbed) ; ' The Shepherd and the Pilgrim ' ; and a humorous chorus in the polyphonic style, ? Vyprask ' (Threshing). In addition, Krizkovsky composed the cantata ' Two Stars from the East,'in honour of the millenary anniversary of the first coming of these Slavonic evangelisers to Moravia; a Funeral Song, with trombone accompaniment; solo songs with piano accompaniment, a few original, and others arranged from folk-tunes. Knzkovsky was an excellent conductor and gave some memorable sacred concerts in Brno. Among his pupils in the choir school of St. Thomas were Jahn, afterwards conductor at the Vienna Opera, Vojafiek, and the dramatic composer, Leos J a n A c e k (q.v.). I t is a pity that his finest choral compositions are not more widely known. He had strong dramatic instincts, but his cloistral life was unfavourable to his development on the secular side of his art. He died, after a paralytic stroke, in his old community of the Austin Friars at Brno. K. N.
(b. Dordrecht, Holland, Feb. 16, 1856), violinist and conductor, studied with many professors, at first under Tyssens, Nothdurft and Ferdinand Bohm, and then, provided with a stipend by the King of Holland, with Ferdinand David at the Leipzig Conservatorium (1871), with Wieniawski at the Brussels Conservatoire, and finally (1876) with Joachim at Berlin. But his career has been rather that of conductor than violinist. For several years he divided his time between his native town and Amsterdam, accepting in the latter city the post of conductor of the Park Orchestra, and Felix Meritis Society (1876), the Parkschouwburg Concerts (1883), and the Concertgebouw Concerts (1890), directing also the Society Concerts at Dordrecht. In 1895 he undertook the conductorship of the Scottish Orchestra in Glasgow, and in 1898 was appointed conductor of the Moscow Philharmonic Society and director of the Moscow Conservatoire. He returned to Leipzig in 1904 for a few months ; then removed to Dresden, and afterwards to Coblenz, with musical activities in both towns. He has written a symphony, a ' Ballade ' for chorus, solo voice and orchestra, besides smaller works. w . w . c.