(d . Augsburg, 1771), was Kapellmeister of Augsburg Cathedral at the time of his death. He wrote church music, instrumental overtures, sinfonia for string quartet, trio for 2 vlns. and basso (Q.-L.). (2) r-iANCESCO (called ' il Cerato ') of Arzignano in the province of Vincenza, an early 17thcentury composer. He wrote ' Celeste ghirlanda di quaranti concerti a voce sola ' (1629); 4 Sacri concerti a 1-4 voci, op. 1 ' (1619).
(d . circa 1678), the chief English printer of music from type in the middle of the 17th century. He printed all the musical works published by John Playford between the years 1658 and 1678. Godbid left his widow Anne, and John Playford, jun. (son of the above named, and apparently apprenticed to Godbid), in possession of his printing works in Little Britain. In 1682 Anne Godbid had died or retired, and J. Playford, jun., alone retained the business until his death in 1686, in which year the plant is advertised as for sale. Godbid and his successor were also particularly noted for general learned and mathematical works in addition to musical publications. Frequently (following the old printers' custom) initials only are used on the imprints, a s : ' W. G.' or ' printed by A. G. and J. P .' f . k .
(b. Watford, Herts, June 18, 1872), after various provincial appearances as a pianist, when only 12 years of age went to the R.A.M., where she studied with Oscar Beringer from 1886-92. She was under Leschetizky in Vienna from 1892-96, and on her return to England in the latter year, made a great success at the Popular Concerts, after which she gave an interesting set of recitals and made a provincial tour in 1897. In that year, and every year since, she played with great success in various parts of the Continent, her debut in Berlin taking place in 1899. In Vienna her first appearance was in 1900, when she played at the New Philharmonic Concerts, with the Bohemian Quartet, and at recitals. She played Tchaikovsky's concerto at a Richter Concert in London, 1901, and toured with Kubelik in 1902, 1903 and 1904. She was married to Arthur H in to n (q.v.) in 1903. Her playing is marked by verve and animation. She has a great command of tone-gradation, admirable technical finish, taste and individuality of style. m .
(b. Brunswick, 1711 ; d. there, Feb. 8, 1787), ducal private secretary and high post office official, a prolific composer of odes and songs, and editor of odes, etc., by C. P. E. Bach, Graun, Giovannini, etc. He played an important part in the evolution of the German Lied (Riemann; Q.-L.).
(b. Marino, 1605; d. June 15, 1664). From 1649 he was maestro di cappella a t the Jesuit church and the Roman Seminary. His compositions, oratorios, masses, motets, etc., stood in high esteem, and even after his death were often reprinted, a rare occurrence in those times. Eitner speaks of a portrait, but does not say where it is. (See Q.-L.)
(b. Elmira, New York, Sept. 17, 1884 ; d. New York, Apr. 8, 1920), an American composer. He studied the pianoforte, composition and theory in Berlin and for a time taught there. In 1907 he returned to America, and till his death taught the elements of music in a boy's school near New York. Almost all his compositions were produced in the brief intervals of leisure that his labours as a schoolmaster gave him in his latter years. He was overworked, and his death is said to have been hastened by the burdensome task of copying at night orchestral parts for his last compositions after his routine duties were done. The comparatively few works of Griffes that were heard during his lifetime and that have been made known since his death indicate that in him was lost a rare and original ta le n t ; one of the finer, more sensitive and fastidious musical natures that the United States has produced. What he did in his thirty-six years was more than a promise, it was a real achievement; but it held a promise of still better things, of true originality and perhaps greatness, if life and opportunity had been spared him. His compositions hitherto published are as follows : ' The Pleasure Dome of Kubla Khan,' orch. Poem, flute and orch. Sonata, PF. Two Sketches for string q u a r te t, on In d ian themes-. Songs and P F . pieces. * These Things Shall B e ,' for unison chorus. Unpublished : ' The Kairn of Koridwen,' dance drama, with instruments. ' Schojo,' Japanese mime play, with instruments. R. A.
(b. Carpi, 1563; d. there, Jan. 3, 1628), canon and maestro di cappella at S. Maria from 1593; composed psalms, vespers, etc., madrigals, motets, canzonets (Q.-L.).
opera in 3 acts, by Richard Strauss ; produced Weimar, May 10, 1894.
(b. Florence, c. 1533 ; d. there, end of June 1591 ).3 Among the little group of philosophic dilettanti who were accustomed to meet in the Palace of Giovanni Bardi at Florence during the closing years of the 16th century, no figure stands forth with greater prominence than that of Vincenzo Galilei, the father of Galileo Galilei, the great astronomer. After studying music at Venice under Zarlino, Vincenzo attained, in later life, considerable reputation as a lutenist. He published two books of madrigals (4 and 5 v.) in 1574 and 1587, and ' Intavolatura di lauto * (Bk. i.) in 1563. When the great question of the resuscitation of the classical drama, on the principles adopted by the Greek tragedians, was debated a t the Palazzo Bardi, Galilei took an active part in the discussion ; and, according to Giov. Batt. Doni, was the first who composed melodies for a single voice-i.e. after the manner of the then nascent monodic school. His first attempt was a cantata, entitled ' II conte Ugolino,' from Dante's Divina commediay which he himself sang, very sweetly, to the accompaniment of a viol. This essay pleased very much, though some laughed at it-notwithstanding which, Galilei followed it up by setting a portion of the Lamentations of Jeremiah in the same style. Quadrio also speaks of his intermezzi; but no trace of these, or of the cantata, can now be discovered. Vincenzo Galilei's writings on subjects connected with art are, however, of great interest. One of these-a Dialogue, entitled 11 Fronimo (Venice, 1568)-is especially valuable, as throwing considerable light on the form of tablature employed by the Italian lutenists, and their method of tuning the instrument, in the latter half of the 16th century. Another important work, entitled Dialogo di V. O. . . . della musica antica e moderna . . . . contra Gius. Zarlino (Florence, 1581), was produced by some remarks made by Z arlino (q.v.)y in his Istitutioni 3 Buried July 2, 1591. (Riemann.) armoniche (Venice, 1558), and Dimostrationi armoniche (Venice, 1571), concerning the Syntonous Diatonic Scale of Claudius Ptolomy, which he preferred to all other sections of the canon, and which Galilei rejected, in favour of the Pythagorean immutable system. I t is impossible to believe that Galilei ever really tuned his lute on the Pythagorean system, which was equally incompatible with the character of the instrument and the characteristics of the monodic school. Moreover, Zarlino himself preferred that the lute should be tuned with twelve equal semitones to the octave. But Galilei, whose prejudices were strong enough to overthrow his reason, followed up this attack by another, entitled Discorso d iV .O . . . . intorno all' opere d i messer Gioseffo Zarlino da Chioggia ^Florence, 1589), and a second edition of the Dialogo (Florence, 1602). In these works he argues the subject with great acrimony: but the scale advocated by Zarlino represents the equal temperament now used for the pianoforte, the organ, and tempered instruments of every kind. The Dialogo contains, however, much interesting matter but very slightly connected with the controversy with Zarlino ; for instance, the text and musical notation of the three apocryphal Greek Hymns, to Apollo, Calliope and Nemesis, which have since given rise to so much speculation and so many contradictory theories. w. s. R., rev. B i b l .- O t t o F l e i s s n e u , Die Madrigale Vimenzo Galileis und sein Dialogo della musica antica e moderna. Munich Dissertation, 1921-22.
(b. Zurich, Feb. 24, 1877), pianist, composer and conductor. His first appearance was in Berlin in 1899. From 1900- 1905 he was the head of the pianoforte department of the Chicago Musical College. He made many tours in Europe and America. In 1921 he was appointed conductor of the Symphony Orchestra of St. Louis, Missouri. He has composed a symphony and numerous pieces for the pianoforte. R . A.