the name of the third degree of the natural ' scale of C in both English and German, the French and Italian name being Mi. Further nomenclature is as follows : E n g l i s h . F r e n c h . G e r m a n . I t a l ia n . E flat. Mi Mmol. Es. Mi bemolle. E double flat. Mi double blmol. Eses. Mi doppio bemolle. E sharp. Mi didze. Eis. Mi diesis. E double sharp. Mi double diize. Eisis. Mi doppio diesis. In the modal system E is the final of modes III. and IV., Phrygian and Hypo-phrygian; the dominant of modes IX . and X IV. (XII.), Aeolian and Hypo-ionian; and the theoretical dominant of mode XII., Hypo-locrian.
(b. Montreal), operatic soprano. Educated a t a convent in Canada, she went to Paris to study singing with Jean de Reszke and appeared there for the first time in public a t a concert in 1907. She married tho Hon EDWARDE EEDEN 145 Cecil Edwardes and had two daughters ; but ! on relinquishing private life she took the nom de theatre of Edvina, under which she made her debut at Covent Garden as Marguerite in c F aust,' on July 15, 1908. Despite lack of ex perience, she made a favourable impression, and did even better the following season in Charpentier's ' Louise,' proving herself as the heroine not only an artistic singer but an intelligent and clever actress. Until 1914 she appeared regularly at the Royal Opera and by degrees added to her repertory Marguerite, Melisande, Thais, Maliella, La du Barry, Fiora, Francesca da Rimini and Tosca. Her voice during this period acquired increasing roundness and power, together with a more assured mastery of such florid effects as modern romantic opera demands. She sang with success at Boston, U.S.A., during the opera seasons 1911-13, and in 1915 joined the Chicago company, besides later on heading concert tours in N. America and Canada. B i b l .- N o r t h c o t t , Covent Garden and the Royal Opera. H. K.
(b. Cheshire, Jan. 11, 1801 ; d. London, Jan. 3, 1873), an amateur composer, a descendant from an ancient Irish family, and the son of Adam Lodge of Liverpool. He assumed the name of Ellerton about 1845. Being sent to Brasenose College, Oxford (where he graduated as M.A. in 1828), he composed an English operetta and an Italian opera. On quitting the university he went to Rome, studied counterpoint for two years under Terriani, and composed seven operas. His English opera ' Domenica ' was produced at Drury Lane in 1838. In 1836 and 1838 the Catch Club awarded him prizes for glees. His works comprise : Six anthems ; 6 masses ; 17 motets ; * Paradise Lost,' oratorio, published 1857 : 4 Issipile,' * Bernice i n Armenia.' * Annibale i n Capua,' ' II sacritlzio di Epito,' ' Andromacca,' ' II camovale d i Venezia,' and ' II marito a vista,' Italian operas ; * Salvator Rosa,' ' Lucinda,' German operas ; ' The Bridal of Triermain,' another English opera ; 61 glees ; 65 songs ; 19 vocal duets ; 6 symphonies ; 4 concert overtures ; 3 quintets ; 54 quartets and 3 trios for stringed instruments ; and 8 trios and 13 sonatas for various combinations of instruments. w R H
(b. Penaranda de Duero, 16th cent.), a Spanish lutenist, author of a ' Libro de musica de Vihuela, intitulado Silva de Sirenas ' (Valladolid, 1547). The book contains a number of transcriptions of sacred and secular music of the time, some of them arranged for two vihuelas, the parts being printed on opposite pages, and facing in opposite directions, so that the book could be used by two performers sitting opposite to one another. The transcriptions include a number of villancicos and madrigals, by Juan V a s q u e z (q.v.), Mateo Flecha and others, some of which are known in their original form (see D a z a ) . Morphy published a selection of the works of Enriquez in ' Les Luthistes espagnols.' J . B. T.
(b. Zamora, 1510-20 ; d. Segovia, 1563 ?), a Spanish composer, who was admitted to the Papal Choir in Rome in 1536, the year after Morales. He is described in the records as ' clericus zamorensis ' ; on a certain occasion he acted as judge in a dispute between Vicentino and Lusitano. In 1541 he applied for leave to visit his country ; in 1554 he left Rome altogether and became maestro de capilla a t Segovia in Old Castile. His works, which are admirably conceived in the severe style of Morales, include : Mhsb, 6 v. * Pliilippus Rex Hispanic* (for accession of P h ilip I I . ; MS., Sistine Chapel, dated 1563). Mass, 6 v. o A<1 te levavi.' (Sistine C hapel.) Motets: * Doinine. ne m emine r ia ' ; ' Hodie completi su n t .' (Vatican ); ' Im m u tem u r h a b i tu ,' 4 v. (Vatican ; Toledo); * Exsurge, quare obdormis,' 4 v. (printed in Gomber t's 'Musica 4 vocum, vulgo Mo tec t;i . . Venice, 1541. MS. Toledo). Magnificats ; Miserere (Madrid Capilla Real). Eslava prints the last two of the abovementioned motets, and ' Erravi sicut ovis,' 4 v. J. B. T.
(b. near Courtrai, mid-17th cent.), became choirmaster at St. Martin's, Courtrai, then at St. Walburga's, Oudenarde ; and on Nov. 5, 1718, at Notre Dame, Antwerp, where he is traceable in documents only until Oct. 1719 ; but Fetis says that he was pensioned in 1725 on account of his great age, and succeeded by Wm. De Fesch. Of his numerous masses and church compositions only a few are still in existence. (See Q.-L.) e . v. d. s.
(11th cent.), wrote 2 treatises on the organ, De mensura fistularum, and Regulae ad fundendas notas, id est organica tintinnabula, both in Gerber, ii. 279. E. v. d. s.
(b. Vienna, Oct. 5, 1822 ; d. Dec. 29, 1899), an eminent pianist, critic and author. He studied the pianoforte under Henselt, Booklet and Thalberg, and Sechter was his master in composition. After a longish stay in | Bucharest, where he devoted himself to music, he was called to Hanover as court pianist to King George V. He took a keen interest in current events, and acted as political correspondent to the Allgemeine Zeitung. He spent the years 1 855-57 at WTiesbaden, London and Frankfort-on-Main, and finally settled in Berlin in 1862. He taught the piano at the Stern Conservatorium from 1 864-72, and again from 1 88 6 -98 , and also had many private pupils, of whom Felix Dreyschock is perhaps the best known. Ehrlich wrote several works for the piano, e .g .4 Concertstuck in ungarischer Weise,' 4 Lebensbilder,' Variations on an original Theme, etc. He contributed largely to the Berliner Tageblatt, Die Gegenivart and Die neue Berliner Musikzeitung as musical critic ; he wrote novels and m any monographs on musical and aesthetic questions, amongst which Lebenskunst und Kunstleben, Kunst und Handwerk, and Die Musik-Asthetik in ihrer Entivickelung von Kant bis auf die Gegenwart are the chief. H. BT.
the part of a musical instrument applied to the m outh ; and hence used to denote the disposition of the lips, tongue and other organs necessary for producing a musical tone. To the embouchure are due, not only the correct quality of the sound produced, but also certain slight variations in pitch, which enable the player to preserve accurate intonation. In many instruments, such especially as the French v o l . II h o rn a n d the ba ssoon, a lm o s t e v e r y th in g d e p e n d s u p o n th e emb o u c h u re . w. H. s.
The name borne by this firm of harp and pianoforte makers has been known almost as long in England as in France, its workshops having been established in London near the close of the 18th century, not long after those in Paris. The reputation of Erard's house is as much due to successful improvements in the harp as in the pianoforte, those of the H a r p (q.v.) being of similar importance to the perfecting of the violin accomplished by the famous Cremona makers. (1) S e b a s t i e n E r a r d (b. Strassburg, Apr. 5, 1752; d. Aug. 5, 1831) was early put to his father's handicraft of cabinetmaker. His father dying when he was 16, he went to Paris and placed himself with a harpsichord maker. He had soon the opportunity to display his practical ingenuity by the construction of a mechanical harpsichord, which was described by the Abbe Roussier in 1776. The Duchess of Villeroi took notice of him, and allotted to him a workshop in her own chateau, where, in 1777, he made the first pianoforte constructed in France. According to Fetis this was a square with two unison stops and a compass of five octaves, similar to the English and German instruments that had been imported. He now established himself, with his brother Jean Baptiste, in the Rue de Bourbon. Their success exciting the jealousy of the Parisian musical instrument makers known as Luthiers, and belonging to the Fan-makers' Guild, they used the power they possessed to seize Erard's workshops ; Louis XVI., however, came to the aid of the brothers, and conferred upon Sebastien (in 1785) a brevet permitting him to make * forte-pianos ' independent of the guild, but obliging him to employ workmen who had satisfied its regulations.1 Sebastien was in London in 1786, and in 1792 took out a patent for improvements in harps and pianofortes. He returned to Paris, after the Terror, in 1796, in which year he made his first grand piano, using the English action, which, Fetis informs us, he continued with until 1808. In 1809 he patented a repetition grand piano action (the first) and improvements in the 1 Rimbault, The Pianoforte, 1860, p. 124. construction of the harp, nearly completing that ingenious double action which was begun about 1786 and was perfected in 1810. A feature in the 1809 patent was the inverted bridge or upward bearing at the wrestplank bridge of the piano. Advanced age made Sebastien leave to his nephew Pierre Erard the introduction of his perfected repetition action, the patent for which was taken out in London in 1821. Among Sebastien's other inventions may be mentioned a ' Piano organise,' or combination of piano and organ, a * harpe a fourchette,' and the ' orgue expressif.' In 1835 the patent was extended to Pierre Erard for seven years on the plea of its great value and of the losses sustained in working it. The invention in 1838 of the Harmonic Bar is claimed for him.2 (See P i a n o f o r t e .) (2) P i e r r e E r a r d (b. 1796 ; d. Chateau de la Muette, Passy, near Paris, Aug. 18, 1855). His widow succeeded him in the business. From her it descended to the Count de Franqueville, who had married her niece and became the chief proprietor of the Paris house, his partner Blondel being in direction of affairs. The London manufactory was discontinued in 1890. a . j . h . Bib l. - Revue musicale de F itis, ii. 337-44, iii. 1-19, xi. 215; C o n s ta n t P i e r r e , Les Facteurs d'instruments, Paris, 1893, 142-4 and 163-7.