the name of the second degree of the f natural scale of C in both English and German, the French and Italian name being Be. Further nomenclature is as follows : E nglish. F rench. German. I talian. D flat. Re Mmol. Dea. Re bemolle. D double flat. Re double bdmol. Desea. Re doppio bemolle. D sharp. Re didze. Dis. Re diesis. D double sharp. R6 double didze. Disis. Re doppio diesis. In the modal system D is the final of Modes I. and II., Dorian and Hypo-dorian, and the dominant of Mode VII. Mixo-lydian. A ' D ' clef, indicating the note a third below the bass clef, was once used. (See C l e f . )
The eldest of these organbuilders was (1) C h a r l e s (b. Amiens, c. 1710), and originally a cooper. The organ of the abbey of Auchin, transported later to St. Pierre, Douai, was his work. His nephew and pupil, (2) P i e r r e (b . Buire - le - Sec, near Montreuil-sur-Mor, June 6, 1735), after working with his uncle, was, until c. 1780, in partnership with Francois Henri C l i c q u o t . To the union of these two clever men are due the organs of St. Nicholas des Champs, Sainte Chapolle and St. Merry in Paris, and many others now destroyed or mutilated by ignorant workmen. (3) PiERRE-FRANgois, so n of Pierre (b. Paris, 1764; d. there, 1833), worked w ith Clicquot and his father from 1801-07, when the latter retired from business, and Pierre-Fran9ois remained alone. He n ever had an opportunity of undertaking large work, but was entirely occupied in repairing instruments. He was clever in certain points, but had n ot studied his art profoundly, and being a needy man, often used inferior materials. He left nothing but his name to his son, (4) Louis P aul (b. Paris, Feb. 24, 1797), who worked with him until 1826 and then alone. He repaired various organs (St. Ouen, Rouen ; St. Germain L'Auxerrois, St. Nicholas dos Champs, Paris). (5) T h om a s C h a r l e s A u g u s t e , son of Charles (1) (b. Amiens, Sept. 4, 1754 ; d. Jouyen- Josas, Seine-et-Oise, June 1, 1835), showed a great aptitude for mechanics, and perfected the harp, the organ and the harpsichord. His best title to fame rests on his practical application of the screw to steam navigation. B i b l .-C o n s t a n t P i e r r e , Les Facteurs d'instruments de musique; les luthiers et la facture in s trum en ta l ( 1 8 9 3 ) . v. de p. ; addns. M. L. p.
opera-comique in 3 acts, words by Barbina Carre ; music by Meyerbeer ; produced Opera-Comique, Paris, Apr. 4, 1859, as 4 Le Pardon de Ploermel ' ; in Italian with recitatives by Meyerbeer, and under his direction, Co vent Garden, July 26,1859 ; in English, Co vent Garden, Oct. 3, 1859 (Pyne and Harrison) ; New York, Academy of Music, Nov. 24, 1864.
from the beginning ' -is placed at the end of the second part of a piece of music to show that the first portion is to be played over again as a conclusion. The direction is often Dal Segno- ' from the sign '-the sign being a Jj: a t or near the beginning of the first portion. In scherzos and minuets, with trios, the direction at the end of the trio is usually ' Scherzo, or Minuetto, D.C. senza repetizione.' Among the earliest instances of its use are those in Cavalli's opera of 1 Giasone ' (1655), and in Tenaglia's opera of ' Clearco ' (1661).
(d. 1561), a Catholic priest of Strassburg, where he was organist at the Minster about 1520, adopted the Reformed principles in 1524, married, and became vicar and organist of St. Thomas's Church there. He is known chiefly as a composer of chorales, especially ' An Wasserfliissen Babylon.' M. c. c.
a metrical ' foot ' exactly expressed by the original word SaxruXos, a finger-one long joint and two short ones. (See M e t r e . )
(b. Oporto, Jan. 4, 1814; d. 1887), a Portuguese composer, author of various comic operas (e.g. '0 Salteador') and church music. He was a distinguished pianist, and played with Liszt in compositions for 4 hands a t a concert in Lisbon in 1845. J . B. T.
(b. Muret, Languedoc,1 June 13, 1753 ; d. Fontenav - aux - Roses, Nov. 27, 1809), a, celebrated French composer. His father occupied a high civil appointment in his province, and in spite of his son's early passion for music, destined him for the Bar. He was sent in 1774 to Versailles, where a commission in the guards of the Comte d'Artois, as sub-lieutenant, had been obtained for him. But the love of his art was proof against the 1 Now Haute-Garonne. v o l. n attraction of a military career. He used to walk from Versailles to Paris to hear the works of Philidor, Monsigny, Gretry, and to take harmony lessons with Langle. He composed string quartets, and soon made his debut with ' Le P etit Souper ' and ' Le Chevalier a la m ode,' performed at the house of Baron de Benseval (1781). Through the protection of Marie Antoinette, 'L'Eclipse totale,' a 'comedie melee d'ariettes,' was performed at the Comedie Italienne, Mar. 7, 1782. This work opens the Beries of his operas-comiques (more than 56; see Fetis and Q.-L.), which secured Dalayrac's position amongst the most fertile composers of his time. Not even the Reign of Terror interrupted the inexhaustible productiveness of his pen. ' Ambroise, ou Voila ma joumee ' bears the terrible date of 1793. Devoted to the democratic ideas brought in by the Revolution, he suppressed the aristocratic form of his name. Though he lost his fortune by the bankruptcy of his friend, the financier Salvalette de Lange, he refused to avail himself of his father's will, which had diminished in his favour the shares of others. Having reached fame and become Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1808, he died at his house at Fontenay-aux-Roses. Of the numerous works of Dalayrac, none have remained in the repertory, although ' Nina ' (1786), ' Camille ou le souterrain ' (1791), ' Adolphe et Clara ' (1799) and ' Maison a. vendre ' (1800) may be considered as his most successful productions. Dalayrac, in his career, met with very few failures. Of the greater part of his pieces there remained fragments that were popular for a very long time. He excelled in the composition of duos, and specially in that of ' romances,' as early as 1782. Gretry says of him that he was bom with wit and grace (Essaia sur la musique, I I I . ) ; but he was not only a tender and charming musician, he was gifted with a very sure histrionic instinct- a rare quality to which unanimous testimonies have been rendered. B ib l.-R. C. G. d e Prx
(b . Aschaffenburg, May 17, 1752 ; d. there, July 26, 1812), composer and writer, studied theology at Gottingen, and held various high ecclesiastical appointments a t Treves, Worms and Coblenz. Although technically an amateur, he composed a great deal of music, and played the pianoforte excellently ; his piano works were regarded as remarkably difficult. His most important works were cantatas, such as ' Jesus auf Golgotha,' ' Evas Kla gen/ a German version of Pope's 4 Dying Christian to his Soul,' and Schiller's ode ' An die Freude.' A quartet for piano and wind instruments is op. 25. A number of sonatas for piano, with and without violin, and several books of songs, some to English words, published in London, are mentioned in Q.-L. Among his literary works are the anonymous Blick eines Tonkunstlers in die Musik der Geister (1787), Fantasien aus dem Reiche der Tone (1806), Vom Erfinden und Bilden (1791), Untersuchungen uber den Ursprung der Harmonie (1800), Die Aolsharfe (1801), and a translation of Sir William Jones's treatise on Indian Music, Vber die Musik der Indier (1802). (Q.-L. and Riemann.) m.
a very prominent music publisher, who founded a business which e x tended from before 1778 to nearly the middle of the 19th century. In 1778 he was established a t a private house, 19 Chancery Lane, from whence he issued many musical publications, including a number of operas, as ' Rosina,' ' Flitch of Bacon,' ' Maid of the Mill ' and others, the copyright of which he had purchased from Napier and Welcker. Between 1783 and 1786 he had opened extensive premises a t 132 Oxford Street (at the comer of Holies Street), having taken over the business of S. Babb. In 1791 he had, in addition, another shop a t 19 Comhill, and in 1803 a third at 151 New Bond Street. Before 1806 his son, (2) W i l l i am , was in partnership, and the business was one of the best in the trade in London. In 1812, however, there are appearances of a break-up. (3) J o s e p h , possibly a son of the original, remained at 19 Comhill, and William was, in the Poultry, succeeded in 1828 by (4) E. D a l e , who remained until after 1835. The original Joseph Dale was to some extent a m usician. He composed sonatas, and arranged vocal airs with variations for the harpsichord or pianoforte. Another contemporary with him (perhaps his brother), (5) J am e s D a l e , did the same. The Dale firm in its best days issued so many and such various publications as to defy classification. The standard operas of the day, collections of English and Scottish songs, country dance music, and sheet music of all kinds, bear their imprint. f . k .