(b. Moscow, Nov. 16/28, 1856), Russian composer and authority on the church music. He studied from 1878-82 at the Moscow Conservatoire under Tchaikovsky and Taneiev. In 1887 he was appointed teacher of piano in the Moscow Synodal School, of which he became director in 1900. After the revolution the Synodal School became the People's Choral Academy, abolished in 1923. Kastalsky led a new and progressive movement in Russian church music, and wrote a number of liturgical works. His Requiem for the Fallen Heroes of the Allied Army was given at Birmingham, Nov. 22, 1917, by the Festival Choral Society under Sir Henry J. Wood. I t is an ambitious attempt to unite East and West in a solemn commemoration of the heroic dead. Ecclesiastical themes from the Eastern Orthodox, Western Catholic and Anglican liturgies are emp loyed ; and even the Hymn to Indra and the song of the Japanese soldiers are included. Kastalsky had in view the lofty, but impracticable, aim of a performance for which each of the allied nations should furnish its own choir. Though coldly received, it is the work of a highly-cultured church musician of broadminded ideals. Kastalsky also composed an opera, ' Clara Milich ' (based on Turgeniev's ta le ) ; a Georgian Suite ; a symphony of the tilling of the s o i l ; and wrote a book on the harmonisation of the folk-songs by the people. R. N.